1 The popular and exhaustive studies of the Vedas by Hillebrandt (1891) MacDonell (1898), or Oldenberg (1894, 1988, English ed.) provided extensive summaries of the mythology with almost no attention to the historical progression of the segments of the RV (cf. Oldenberg, 1988: 5). Keith mentions some portions of the RV as being later than others (1925: 2-3). Additionally, thematic studies have shed light upon their respective topics while not reflecting much consideration of the historical development of the texts from which their material was drawn such as A. L. Basham's A Cultural History of India (1975); or Harvey Alper's Mantra (1989).

2 Various degrees of detail on this has been supplied by Abel Bergaigne, Le religion vedique d'aprés des hymnes du Rig-Veda (Reprint, 1963), Oldenberg in Metrische und textgeschichtliche Prolegomena: zu eines kritischen Rigveda Ausgabe (1888), E. V. Arnold's Vedic Metre in its Historical Development (1905); etc. Scholars have also based this and related findings upon Bloomfield's Rig-Veda Repetitions, (1916); such as Keith in his Rig Veda BraahmaNas (1920).

3 The general appellation "family books" was first coined by Oldenberg (1888: 191) and was considered again by Gonda, for instance, in Vedic Literature (1975: 9-10); and again by Witzel in "Rgvedic history: poets, chieftains and polities," (1995 :310). However, in a more recent publication, The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu," Witzel has suggested that the material in RV 8 is also a Family Book due to its consistency with the rules of arrangement in MaNDalas 2-7 (1997: 261). However, RV 8 is still not quite so homogeneous as are MaNDala's 2-7 and RV 8 also contains sections of decidedly later date (See Chapter 3). In this study, "Family Books" will be the proper term by which RV MaNDala's 2-7 are referred to from now on.

4 These statistics have been determined based upon my own line-by-line analysis of the material as well as the indispensable aid of Vishva Bandhu's VaidikapadaanukramakoSaH (1976).

5 I will also make note of ahám where it occurs, as well as a lengthy introductory discussion drawing upon the recent work of George Thompson in combination with some interesting notes about direct and indirect forms of address in the Nirukta in the first half of Chapter 2. In addition, the working translation of each word is presented in detail throughout Chapter 2. It is not possible to offer simple translations of each. It is also not the purpose of this study to find and "original" or "primary" meaning for each word. On the contrary, this study is designed to illuminate the changes over time in the way each word is used.

6 I draw this term, though not some of the attendant methodological problems, from Jan Gonda, "Some notes on the study of Indian religious terminology," (1962).

7 This database of links, the first of its kind on the World Wide Web, has been active on the Internet since July of 1996 at I read each line of the electronic RV that I reconstructed from the original 1971 file made by Lehman and Ananthanarayan at the University of Texas. I did not use automated searches--nor do I advocate them with this methodology--as the vicissitudes of sandhi and accent make this impractical with current search tools. The mechanics of linking can be learned easily enough with currently available references and software, but this procedure is arduous requiring hours of careful programming for each link to enable the fruitful results presented in the following chapters. A duplicate copy of the Internet site located on my hardrive (and is also included with this electronic version of the dissertation, part of my own advocacy that ETD's serve as repositories of results and research for honing the empirical precision of Humanities scholarship) as Internet use can be unreliably slow--was used extensively in the compilation of data for Chapters 4 and 5.

8 An additional benefit of the World Wide Web (WWW) site was the inclusion of an electronic text of the Shatapatha BraahmaNa. This electronic text has also been reconstructed by myself from Lehman and Ananthanarayan's landmark 1971 efforts, and is linked, in turn, with each RV mantra that it quotes, with brief notation as to whether it is verbatim, with changes, or according to the Vaajasaneya SaMhitaa's use of the passage.

9 Reat does not accent his terms. For consistency, I have done so.

10 I am offering only his Rg Vedic uses for these words as they are the most germane to the current study. Words like aatmán change to fairly conventional meanings--e.g., self (1990: 155)--in the later chapters, though there is no consistent rule or principle implied for this other than the idiosyncrasies of different darshana's.

11 Olivelle, Patrick. []. "Re: Rig Veda, ta'ntra, nUl, and sUtra." In Indology. []. April 4, 1997. Archived, and accessible via search of "Re: Rig Veda, ta'ntra, nUl, and sUtra" the Indology archives via the URL:

12 There are studies that address terminological groupings which include some of the words under study here. Louis Renou's Etudes sure le vocabulaire du Rgveda, (1958) includes several (cf. also his study of Vedic man below). In addition, Tatyana J. Elizarenkova's Language and Style of the Vedic RSis, (1995) discusses many of the words addressed herein. The ground laid in these works, and others such as Gonda's Stylistic Repetition in the Veda (1959), has made the importance and intricacy of syntactic stylistics lucid to scholars of the Veda, and enables an interpretive map, such as that of Elizarenkova, to be clearly drawn. These studies are more general in their focus, however, and the words related to the self that they include are not analyzed in relation to each other, or with regard to historical development.

13 Paul Deussen, Outlines of Indian Philosophy: The Philosophy of Vedanta in its Relations to Occidental Metaphysics explains the self in terms of the Biblical Sermon on the Mount! (1907: 55-57). The imposition of Greco-Roman philosophy and Biblical themes was carried further into the 20th-century Indological scholarship, as with David E. Hume, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads (1989: ix, 464).

14 The copy I have is, so far as I know, the only one outside of Japan. The good fortune by which I was able to obtain it is something for which I owe many thanks to Sarah Hill at the UI library, and Mitsue Sugita of Kyoto University.

15 This female deity is referred to in only 6 hymns of the RV. It is a primordial creative entity whose joining with primeval púruSa in RV 10.90.5 begets the púruSa which, in turn, is sacrificed to create the universe. Considering Sahota's attention to verses like RV 10.121.9 referring to the great waters, the association of Viraaj and the waters might explain his interest. Here, as elsewhere with Sahota's work, we can perceive the issues and questions he is raising, but can only guess at the conclusions until this unique study is translated.

16 uttaanápadaH- lit. " one with legs or feet spread or extended"--i.e., a female (giving birth).

17 Cf. 3.59, 7.52.2, 7.60.5, 7.66.13, 7.85.4, 8.18.15, 9.114.3, 10.72.8, 10.88.11; etc.

18 Cf. 8.25.3, 8.47.9, 8.56.11, 10.36.3, 10.132.6. Again, as with the AAditya's, Sahota concerns his investigation primarily with the hymns from the 10th MaNDala and, of those, the ones whose verses are recited in the ShB. MacDonell has suggested her name might derive from -daa, "to bind," as the "bondless" one, citing themes of freedom in passages with Aditi in RV 1.24.1, 1.72.9, 1.185.3, 5.2.7, 8.67.14, 10.63.10, 1.89.10 (1898: 121).

19 In Chapter's 4-5 below, I argue that aatmán is not so simply reducible to breath, so I would take issue with this portion of Maurer's translation, suggesting instead that aatmán represents active essence or animate essence (See Chapter 5).

20 Only within the past weeks have I received Michael Witzel's "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu" (1997) which promises to offer a much more detailed context for determining the possible social and geographical origins for the púruSa. This, and the occasions of púruSa in the Sama Veda, will be considered in greater detail in the publication of this dissertation.

21 These include words used in discussion meant to illustrate the nature of the self, primarily in the UpaniSads and include such diverse references as pRthivií (as in Aitareya UpaniSad 3.5.3, the aatmán is bráhman, and is, in turn, one with the elements wind, earth, and space: pRthivii vaayur aakaasha ityaadi), and cases where Sharma has interpreted references as implying the self are included such as sárvam (according to BAAU 6.3.3 with the praise to "all" when offering: sarvaaya svaahaa). There are also those synonyms--words listed in N 14.10--which Sharma interprets as they are found in such passages as the explication of ways of being for the aatmán in Maitri UpaniSad 6.8: ESa hi khalu aatmaa . . . haMsaH, bhava, prajaapati, satya, arka, and so on (1972: 23f.).

22 I exempt Sahota as his study does attend to the texts in what appears to be historical fashion, with the exception, perhaps, of the Rg Veda.

23 In a recent publication Michael Witzel has reiterated the internal levels of dating of the RV and later literature (see below in the next section) and the attendant methodological problems in studies conducted without attention to the research that was begun in the late 19th Century by Bergaigne, Oldenberg and others: " . . . such attention to detail has been rare among even Vedic scholars . . . Results based upon this type of investigation are at best too general and at worst completely obscure important developments" (1995a: 96).

24 For instance, in the discussion of primary and secondary meanings for uudhar/ udder, Elizarenkova gives one instance of primary meaning is drawn from the oldest portion of the RV, while the secondary meanings are all--but one--from substantially later portions, but she does not note this as a possible contributing factor in the polysemy of the word (1995: 34-35). While it may be the case that this meaning remained constant over the periods of change in the RV, the absence of mention to this effect fails to clarify the issue.

25 Ideally, of course, the e-text database would include the other texts being studied. However, the labors of typing in these materials are not conducive to the production of both an HTML database and a dissertation. Thus for the other texts under consideration I rely upon the VaidikapadaanukramakoSaH.

26 Mus offers a unique comparison of the emphasis upon the philosophical abstraction of the self in the Western studies with the "integration" of all levels of experience, history, and textual resources which marks India's developing idea of the self (predominantly expressed with aatmán according to his hypothesis). Mus begins with what he calls the "emergence syllogism" of Nyaaya-VaisheSika where the two elements of the syllogism bear no connection apart from how one element contains another (masculinity within humanity: adding together all masculine beings [M] and all human beings [H] does not alter the total number of human beings [M + H = H]). He suggests that all doctrines and discussion as well as their respective dependents in Indian philosophy make up the doctrine of the self/aatmán as a "leading thread throughout one of the great adventures in human history" (1959: 75).

27 In this book Smith spends a certain amount of time considering the methodological question of definition, noting that one must say what one is defining without, at the same time, prefiguring the results of the search. His primary issue of definition has been reviewed in detail by J. C. Heesterman (1991: 296-305). Reflections was one of the more influential books in the earliest stages of my planning for this dissertation and, while it plays little part beyond the present citation, the reader will find a very accessible introduction to the intricate mechanisms of Vedic ritual in the later chapters of Smith's book.

28 Deussen (1907), Brown (1931), Narahari (1944), Sahota (1956), Sharma (1972), Nakamura (1983), Tull (1989), Smith (1989), Sinha (1991), Bodewitz (1973, 1976, 1990, 1991), Reat (1990), etc.

29 Everything about this section on the aatmán and wisdom derives from decidedly late examples (all of his RV quotes are from the very latest periods with the notable inclusion of 5.78.8-from a hymn in which verses 5-9 are later insertions). Accordingly the conclusions drawn from this discussion in the Nirukta can only be considered with any certainty for the later RV. RV 1.164.21 is part of a complex set of allusions to what is a well-known symbol of two birds (yátraa suparNaá amR'tasya bhaagám ánimeSaM vidáthaabhisváranti | nó víshvasya bhúvanasya gopaáH sá maa dhiíraH paákam átraá vivesha). RV 1.164, apart from its notoriously intractable passages, is a later addition (Lanman, 1880; Oldenberg, 1888; Witzel, 1995b; etc.). W. Norman Brown translates the verse as follows: "Here, where the birds (priests) in conclave flawlessly laud their portion of immortality, the mighty herdsman of the whole world, the wise one (Agni), has entered me, the simpleton (1968: 216). Regarding the riddle of the two birds in this passage and those just before and after it, see also Willard Johnson, "On the Rg Vedic riddle of the Two Birds in the Fig Tree (RV 1.164.20-22), and the Discovery of the Vedic Speculative Symposium," JAOS 96 (2), 1976: pp. 248ff. After concluding that wisdom--according to the UpaniSads--is from the gods Yaaska gives a conspectus of synonyms such as those for great/mahaán, truth/sátya, etc. (N 1.13). All these terms are frequently used in Middle and Late Vedic to characterize the aatmán. The "transition" from the thieves/simile discussion to the aatmán etymology is a largely disconnected set of etymologies of family relations.

30 Hermann Graßmann, Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda, (1964), p. 26. Similarly, "geht, wandert" for átati in Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefaßtes Etymolisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen , Band I: A-Th, (1956), p. 26. In addition, there is no deviation by Klaus Mylius, Wörterbuch Sanskrit-Deutsch, (1975), p. 21. Adding "laufen," then, is Otto Böthlingk, Sanskrit -Wörterbuch in Kürzerer Faßung, Band I: Die Vocale, (1959), p. 19.

31 The myth of the struggling devás and ásuras, almost formulaic in sacrificial explications, would reflect the category Renou calls "peu propice." These are occasions where the gods are referred is vulnerable or under adversity (TS, discussed in Chapter 6, also AB 1.23, 1.30, 2.16, 3.42, JB 1.107, PB 7.2 ShB,, etc.).

32 Such is the case with Indra and his size or strength as in 10.116.6d (cf. also 2.17.2c, 3.34.1c, 6.40.4c, 9.73.2d, and 10.54.2a). Various gods are praised for the manifestation of beauty and ornamentation as with the Maruts ( 1.88.3a, 5.57.6d, 5.60.4b, 6.66.4d, 7.56.11b, 7.59.7a, 8.20.6c), Ashvins (1.181.4b, 2.39.2c, 7.72.1c), Agni (1.140.6c, 3.18.4c, 4.6.6d, 4.10.6a, 6.9.4d, 7.3.9b), Vishve Devaas (10.65.7d, 10.66.9d), USas (1.123.10a, 1.124.6c, 5.80.4b). There is the single reference to Indra's beauty in 10.112.3a, also Soma in 9.96.20a, Knowledge in 10.71.4c, háMsa in 10.95.9c, PitRs in 10.14.8c, and somewhat with Mitra-VaruNa in 10.132.5c.

33 Elizarenkova adds "with love" here, and I simply don't get it . . . her justification for the translation, that is.

34 Similarly, RV 1.147.2d, 3.1.1d, 3.41.6a (repeated in 6.45.27b), 4.18.10d, 6.49.13c, 6.51.7d, 8.44.15a.

35 It should also be mentioned in this connection the recent plethora of attention to the term and its derivations on the Indology list serve moderated by Dominik Wujastyk, archived at . The discussion is hardly finished, but it began in early 1997 concerning the uses in Tantra texts of tantu. From there the discussion has both evolved and devolved to a variety of interests, most recently in the matter of loan-words--to and/or from--Dravidian, especially viz. tanuú.

36 In the Amrakosha, 1.6.19 suggests that púruSa is a vulgar word (niSThuraM puruSam). However, the close connection between aatmán and púruSa is suggested in 1.4.29 as both are said to concern the soul (kshetrajña aatmaa puruSaH).

37 I am indebted to Ulrike Roessler for her reference on this article. In a personal communication (Date: Thu, 27 Nov 97 10:31:55 +0200 From: Roesler Ulrike <>) she indicated: "With regard to the vocabulary for the self you might be interested in the research of H.W. Bodewitz. His inaugural lecture in Utrecht (Netherlands) was on "Vedische Voorstellingen omtrent de 'ziel'" ("Vedic conceptions of the soul") and is exactely about the terms you are concerned with. He told me that there should appear an english version of this paper as one of the Gune Memorial Lectures (fifth series)."

38 The later association between aatmán and bráhman is reflected in the use of aatmán as a synonym for bráhman in Amarakosha 1.1.16 (cf. 3.3.115).

39 The occasions where brahmán is mentioned in a specific functionary role within the ritual along with other priests such as the agnihótra, néstR, etc. are not considered in these statistics. These specific vocational attributions of various priests necessarily will include the brahmán and not the R'Si, kaví, or vípra who are mentioned, instead, with the composition of the hymns--a feat already completed for the most part in the perspective of the Middle Vedic literature which prescribes the use of the hymns (cf. Witzel, 1997).

40 Similarly Geldner, "Ich habe das Huldigungswort für den stärksten, übermächtigen PuuSan und für Vaayu bestimmt, die beide durch ihre Freigebigkeit die Gedanken anregen und die selbst die Reichtumschenker des Lohnes sind" (1951, II: 45).

41 Also Geldner, "Ich rufe die leicht zu errufende Raakaa mit schönem Loblied; die Holde soll uns erhören, soll es von selbst merken" (1951, 1: 316).

42 There are also occasions where ahám simply marks the plea of the individual priest, yet even here he asserts himself--cf. Thompson (below, 1997b)--as the plaintiff (e.g., 10.83.5c-d táM tvaa manyo akratúr jihiiLaaháM svaá tanuú baladéyaaya méhi).

43 Thompson suggests that this is part of the "central feature" of Vedic discourse that it is "highly agonistic" involving competition and testing (1997b: 141). He has examined this idea in great detail in "The Brahmodya and Vedic Discourse," (1997a). In this article he identifies this type of discourse, and the various "signature lines" of self-affirmation which close several hymns, as primarily self-assertion by the speaker. In effect, the point of the brahmodya is less to answer riddling questions than to assert oneself by uttering them (1997a: 34). Incidentally, these "signature lines" comprise most of the occasions in which we find ahám in the RV which are not part of aatmastuti's.

44 E.g., RV 10.125 where Vaac AAmbhrNii is repeatedly mentioned--never by name--with plays upon the sound -am.

45 The necessity of focus upon Elizarenkova's work is the relative paucity of available examples from the so-called "Moscow Tartu School of Semiotics" (cf. Wendy Doniger, in the 'Foreword" to The Language and Style of the Vedic RSi's, pp. viif.). I became quite conscious of the newness of this work as I revised this section and realized that, apart from Elizarenkova, I had encountered no other Russian scholarship. This struck me as a possible result of the "end of the Cold War," and so I posited that the beginnings of Russian--originally Soviet--scholarship being available in the West must be a phenomenon which began with Deténte in the 1970's. I submitted a question to the Indology list serve (Indology <INDOLOGY@LISTSERV.LIV.AC.UK>) which began under the subject "A Transgression?" (which you will need for searching the archives via the URL: ). I was surprised to learn from Yaroslav V. Vassilkov that it is not without some political reason that Detente did not mark a major change: "But, contrary to people's expectations, the detente only worsened the situation in Soviet humanitarian sciences. Brezhnev decided to compensate the concessions he made to the West in politics by strengthening his control over "ideology". Some of Indologists lost their jobs after they signed the letters of protest against the persecution of dissidents, some had many troubles after the fabricated trial in Buryatia of the Buddhist scholar and religious leader B.Dandaron (1972-73). For about 10 years any studies of Buddhism remained practically under ban in the USSR (at least they could not appear in print), and classical Indology in general was looked at by the authorities with suspicion. Many eminent specialists in Classical Indian culture were forced to emigrate - among them A.Pyatigorsky, A.Syrkin, B.Oguibenin and others. But other people stayed, and now the true leaders of Classical Indian studies in Russia - such as T.Ya.Yelizarenkova and V.N.Toporov - still belong to the same generation and the same scholarly circle" (Date: Wed, 28 Jan 1998 01:47:15 +0300 From: "Yaroslav V. Vassilkov" <yavass@YAVASS.USR.PU.RU>).

46 In addition, it is important to note that Elizarenkova describes her project as primarily synchronic "This work was conceived as a synchronic description of the poetic language of the Rg Veda as a uniform synchronic cross-section", but that "diachrony should be contained in synchrony" (1995: 8).

47 On a handful of occasions where the tanuú of mortals engaged in battle is described as glowing, the human tanuú appears to have almost a connotation of divinity as they are said to radiate as in 6.25.4b (tanuurúca táruSi yát kRNváite). RV 7.93.5b has a similar use of tanuurúca, and 2.1.9b uses it to refer to Agni. This use of tanuú further underscores the inadequacy of a corporeal body as the meaning of tanuú. The issue of the corporeal body is discussed in great detail below in Chapters 4 and again in 5 as part of the examination of tanuú.

48 These words are treated in detail belowtanuú throughout Chapters 4-6, and aayú, ásu, jiivá, and praaNá beginning with Chapter 5 as they make their primary appearance in the later RV.

49 Further confirmation of the conclusions in the discussion of synonymy above is found here, and praaNa is chosen in the passage listing bodily functions--eating, hearing--rather than animate life which would bring the use of aatman.

50 Witzel also notes that RV 9 is a problem for comparative analysis as it is a "special case" as a song book for the Soma sacrifices (1989: 159).

51 From the KSV we have 3.4.3; 3.4.4; 3.4.5; and 3.4.9. In the JSV there two more, 2.3.6; 2.3.7; 2.3.8; 2.4.1; 2.4.2; 2.4.3. My first inclination--as I do not have SV editions--was that this reflected repetitions of RV 10.51, 10.90 or 10.97 which contains several occasions of púruSa, however a review of Bloomfield'sVedic Concordance (1906) did not confirm this.

52 Of course, it might simply be, as Witzel notes, the fondness for poor translations, the lack of cooperation between Vedicists, the persistence of biases such as an "eternal, immutable Veda composed by primordial sages thousands of years ago" (1995a: 116-117); or worse, "the generally held view that everything that can be gathered from a study of the text has already been said" (1995a: 87). It might also be due to the fact that many scholars do not--or cannot--consult the research of German scholars! (Cf. also 1995a: 85).

53 Witzel (1995a: 96, n. 22) mentions as examples Bodewitz' 1976 study of the agnihotra. To be sure, there are occasions of Bodewitz' oblivion to text chronology as in the discussion of "the position" of the agnihotra in Vedic literature, citing ChU 5.24.5, TAA 10, and AV 10.3.22 in the same temporal reference (1976: 4). Further in this discussion, however, Bodewitz repeatedly mentions relative chronology--one which even attends to subsections of texts--such as with his references to "Agnihotra passages of [various] braahmanas (of which the AB. is the older) [which] appear later than those of the TB" (1976: 6). Gonda, however, does make wide generalizations as seen, for instance, in his discussion of Vedic social structures in the volume on Vedic literature (1975: 24-25). The problem is not complete ignorance of detailed Vedic chronology. It is the complete inconsistency in the utilization of this information by scholars. When the wealth of recent archeological data from South Asia is assessed in ignorance of the correct chronology of Vedic literature, misunderstanding of both fields of inquiry is compounded. Witzel has lamented the misperceptions within archeological studies and the subsequent flawed applications of them when they are reviewed without attention to Vedic chronology (1995a: 85, 86, 88, etc.). Only the work of Wilhem Rau--Stadt und Gesellschaft im alten Indien, (1956); and Zur vedischen Altertumskunde, (1983)--has proven itself as an exception to these "painful chapters."

54 Narten's note 13 expresses much of the categorical foundation upon which Witzel's work and the current study are based, p. 115: "Das Vedische selbst unterteilt sich chronologisch in 1. Rgveda (RV); 2 Atharvaveda (AV) und die Hauptmasse der in der Ritualliteratur vorkommenden Opfersprüche (Mantras); 3. SaMhitaa-Prosa: [TS], [MS], [KS], [KpS]; 4. BraahmaNa-Prosa: [AB], [JB], [KB], [PB], [ShB], [TB]; jünger: [BAAU], [ChU], [JUB]; 5. spätvedische prosa: [GB], AAraNyaka's, Suutras."

55 I have to qualify this critique, however. Without Gonda's exhaustive--if chronologically erratic--studies, many key concepts of Vedic literature (bráhman, Mitra-VaruNa, vision, loká, etc.) would remain unexplored. In addition, his "cubby-hole" technique did not lend itself to linear sequence. I have since learned that it was not "cubby holes" but card boxesin either case the container cannot overcome the organizational problems as the evolving Gonda mythology among Vedicists affirms. What is remarkable is that, in spite of the chronological imprecision, many of his findings still hold true as, for instance, with Notes on Brahman (1950), where his ideas of expansion and increase at the heart of the word's meaning are not far from the conclusions below in Chapter 4. In the present study, I have employed detailed attention to Vedic chronology in a complex electronic map of the terminology I am studying using HTML as an augment to Gonda's--and Bodewitz'--basic approach of semantic field methodology which is quite sound. Instead of reinventing the wheel, I am simply applying space-age lubricant to it.

56 Frequently this is the case in Vedic Literature, except, perhaps for scattered notes of a relatively obvious nature--AV Paip being older than AVSh (p. 275), or ShBK being older than ShBM (pp. 331-332).

57 He follows Hermann Oldenberg who first outlined this principle in Metrische und textgeschischtliche Prolegomena: zu eines kritischen Rigveda Ausgabe, (1888). It is worth pointing out, however, that this "rule"--like others to follow below--are often not born out in context. As to the order of the family books, there is variance whereas, while MaNDala 2 and 3 are consistent with 43 and 62 hymns, respectively, the 4th deviates with 58, followed by 5 with 87, then deviating with MaNDala 6 at 75 hymns, and ending with 104 hymns in MaNDala 7. In private electronic correspondence (April 5, 1998), Witzel has observed that, if the Vishve Deva hymns in 3.54-57 are late--i.e., they post-date the arrangement of the text (Arnold, 1897, Lanman, 1880, etc.) in addition to 3.53--then the number of hymns between MaNDalas 3 and 4 is correct. RV 2 has 43, then RV 3 would have 57 hymns, and RV 4 would be in proper sequence with 58. An excellent resource for these metatextual matters is the 50th volume in the Harvard Oriental Series, Barend A. Van Nooten and Gary B. Holland's Rig Veda: A Metrically Restored Text, (1994).

58 Summary in e-mail, Lars Martin Fosse [], "Re: Many thanks;" personal e-mail message, July 8, 1997. See also Preface (Fosse: 1997).

59 In this discussion I am associating patterns where tanuú and tmán are associated more or less with one deity of another according to the pattern of a given family's collection of hymns. Detailed statistics as to the frequency of use and summaries of the relevant secondary literature for each term have been provided in Chapter 4.

60 MacDonnell, in Vedic Mythology (1981) notes the 91 occasions of bráhman, (33 of 37 genitives are part of the designation BrahmaNaspatiH), and sees no distinction between BrahmaNaspatiH and BRhaspati. Keith in The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and the Upanishads, (1989: 65, 82, 162) also considers BrahmaNaspati to be identical with BRhaspati. He also concludes that BrahmaNaspati is the spouse--a duty shared with Soma--to AAditi. Hillebrandt, in Vedic Mythology (1990: 100, 107), following Bergaigne [Religion Védique I, p. 299-300.], believes the same as Keith, that both BrahmaNaspati and BRhaspati are simply different names for the same deity. In another publication, Hillebrandt goes as far as to suggest that BrahmaNaspati is something of a secondary appellation of the more primary term BRhaspati, that BrahmaNaspati is simply a glossboth terms designate the sacrificial fire in their semantic origins, in an article suggesting that bráhman means 'magic of growth,' ["bráhman" in Festschrift für Jacobi (1926: 43). Oldenberg, in The Religion of the Veda, (1988: 45) follows suit, suggesting they are "obviously synonymous." Gonda (1950: 39, 43) suggests that both names share their semantic derivation from -bRh. This, he concludes, indicates that both names show that the ideas of power, growth, and preservation or sustenance pervade in the meanings attributed to BrahmaNaspati and BRhaspati. See the detailed discussion below in Chapter 5.

61 As discussed below at some length in Chapter 4, however, words like R'Si, vípra, and kaví are quite commonplace in the 3rd MaNDala.

62 Of course, the use of tanuú to specify which presence of a deity is requested or lauded implies multiple presences in each deity. In 10.107.6 the sacrificial fee, the dákSina is said to have 3 tanuú's, Agni has many forms in 10.51.2, and Indra is implied to have multiple tanuú's as his is implored to be sweet in 8.17.6.

63 The only other exaltation of Vaac, prior to the well-known later instances (e.g., 10.125), is 8.89.10-11. In this case, 8.89 is in the second addition to the Family Books (1.51-191 and 8.1-66 excepting 8.49-59 are the first addition). Further attesting to its lateness are Oldenberg (1888) as cited in Witzel (1995b: 311).

64 References to the Vaamadeva's are found in the AAA 2.2.1, 2.5.1; AB 4.30.2/AU 2.5; also KS 10.5; MS 2.1.11, 3.2.6, AV 18.3.15f.; BAU 1.4.22, and PB 13.9.7.

65 Muir suggests that the problem is not resolvable (Muir I, 1967: 375). I have said that RV 3 contains no hymns to VaruNa, and only one to Mitra. RV 7 contains 7 addressed to the pair "Mitra-VaruNa." Perhaps this reflects the negative attitude of the Vishvaamitras (or their redactor) to the legendary parent of VasiSTha. The hymn 7.33 itself is not profuse with words related to the self; more prominently it contains many forms of -dhii (to appear, to contemplate; usually employed in various forms as the revelatory power of articulation in a mantra) in accordance with the accolades to the VasiSTha's powerful gift of efficacious prayer. Some ancillary words--e.g., hRdayasya/of the heart, in verse 9--occur as well. The hymn is clearly in need of more detailed analysis. Scholars appear more inclined to avoid the issue. For example, Gonda does not touch upon the wider issues of this hymn while still offering a detailed study of the many variances upon -dhii in 7.33 as well as elsewhere in the Rg Veda (1963: 202, 277) However, he does briefly acknowledge the rivalry in a discussion of the choice of jyotir in 7.33.8, "used in order to make the spiritual, priestly and poetical greatness of the celebrated family of the VasiSThas intelligible . . . ," p. 273.

66 I cannot underscore enough, at this juncture, the need not only for additional encoding of Vedic texts in electronic form but for a greater sense of communal interchange among the scholars who have these texts. The electronic medium is, by its nature, one that promotes the rapid and convenient exchange of information. The use of HTML to examine this distinction in time between Mantra language and BraahamaNa prose in a manner similar to the multiple layers of the RV would be an indispensable asset to studies of development in all categories of Vedic studies and especially as a foundation for understanding the BYV texts. Findings like this are not possible, however, unless scholars recognize the value of collaboration through the electronic medium and the greater refinement of research with corresponding new frontiers that open participation in the electronic research community reveals. It was such a community of shared memory--human recollection of texts rather than electronic data bits--which generated the early speculations and developments in the Veda's through the brahmodya and other gatherings of sages.

67 In the semantic fields surrounding bráhman there is an almost complete absence of these three terms--kaví (6 occasions out of 113 total occurrences in the Family Books, none are in RV 7), vípra (6 occasions out of the 99 total occurrences in the Family Books--five of which occur in RV 7 and one, 6.35.5), and R'Sii (2 occasions out of 29 total occurrences in the Family Books--both in RV 7). Thus there is no decisive preference by one family or another for bráhman when associated with any of these words for praise-givers, though RV 7 seems to prefer to associate vípra with bráhman more frequently than the other books, while never linking kaví and bráhman so directly.

68 2.5.3 vócat, 2.39.8 stómaM, 3.13.6 ukthéSu, 3.51.6 gíra, 4.3.5 shastír, 4.6.11uktháM, 4.22.1 stómam, 5.31.4 arkaír, 5.39.5b ukthám and 5d gíro, 5e gíraH; 6.23.5 ukthaá, 6.29.4 ukthaá, 6.35.1 stotré, 6.38.3 arkaíH, gíro, stómo; 6.38.4 gíra, ukthaá; 6.45.4 árcata, gaayata; 6.45.19 huve, 7.28.5 vocéma, árcato; 7.70.6 Rcyante

69 The familiar term mántra is altogether scarce in the RV with barely 20 occasions, and only five in the Family Books (mántram in 2.35.2, 7.7.6, 7.32.13; mántraaH in 6.50.14, and the only instrumental, mántraiH in the later insertion 3.53.8 [Oldenberg, 1888; Witzel, 1995b]).

70 Recall in Chapter 3 (p. 84) that his strongest criteria is that of later vocabulary and grammatical forms, followed by the appearance of a differing AnuSTubh meter, position in the collection, and subject matter and mixed TriSTubh-Jagatii verseor TriSTubh with an extra syllable--as a equally less consistent indicators. RV 10.114 has later grammar and vocabulary, mixed meter, and later subject matter with its attention to numerical matters (cf. Hopkins, JAOS 16: 1894).

71 Vaac and bráhman are associated several other times in the later RV, however the connection is not so overtly related with the later doctrines in which their pairing figures so prominently, or such isolated verses as 10.114.8. The relation is indirect on occasions such as RV 1.75.1-2, 1.83.2-3, 1.84.3, 1.117.25, 8.52.9 (a verbal form of -vaac), a more elevated sense in the three voices when the Courser speaks bráhman in 9.97.34 (note that here the later association of bráhman as an act of speech is quite apparent), 9.113.6, 10.50.4-6, 10.54.6 (a verbal form of -vaac), 10.61.1, 10.80.7, 10.114.8, 10.120.5, 10.122.2, and a note against those who despise bráhman, the brahmadvíshe, in 10.125.6. It is opportune to note that the analysis of bráhman and Vaac throughout the entire RV took only an hour with the aid of the HTML linking mechanism I built for this research methodology (Click here to open a separate browser window to peruse all occasions of brahman--masculine and neuter--in chronological order in the RV). A search engine wouldn't work because sandhi changes the spelling too frequently, but HTML links can be repeatedly examined in historical order to check any one of a number of patterns.

72 In the AVSh 2.11, 2.27, 3.30, 7.1, 7.70, 10.2, 19.9.3-5, ShB etc.; AVSh 8.9, 8.10 to the viraáj meter (cf. Renou, Journal Asiatique, 1952: 141ff.), the direct equivalence of bráhman, various deities and Vaac in the earliest portion of the AB, 4.21.1, ShB,,,,,,, AAA 1.1.1, 2.4.3-2.5; Vaac's later developments into micro-macro-cosmic hierarchies BAAU 1.5.3f. 3.9.1f., ChUp 3.18, etc.; the association with Prajaapati in AVSh 4.4, KS 12.5, ShB,, and so on.

73 There is an excellent article on the meteorological significations of this hymn in the Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies article by Gautama V. Vajracharya, "The Adaptation of Monsoonal Culture by Rgvedic Aryans: A Further Study of the Frog Hymn" (Vol. 3 [1997], issue 2 [May]). Vajracharya suggests that this hymn reflects a later date due to its incorporation of the rainy season into the sacrificial calendar. The rainy season had become important, he contends, due to the dry climate after the Aryans moved from Afghanistan. Vajracharya argues convincingly for the time-frame suggested in the hymn as marking the 10 month period prior to the monsoonsas in the cited verse that occasions this note. I would add to Vajracharya's evidence from the other literature that RV 5.78.8, a later insertion (Oldenberg 1888; Witzel, 1995b), that refers to the birth of a child also refers to a ten-month gestation which, when coming to time of birth, stirs the meteorological phenomena just as do the monsoons. This suggests, at the very least, that the insertion of this later metaphor reflects the "post-Afghanistan" imagery of the dry world coming to life like a birth.

74 I am aware, of course, that there is a statistical issue of relative frequency which must be considered. Witzel initiates his study with a statistical outline of possible occurrences of each form he analyzes as 100% in the RV, and then compares the other books according to how their composition with various forms compares in number with the RV. The only other statistical totalsapart from the exhaustive accounts of forms found in Lanman (1880), Oldenberg (1888), Arnold (1905)--do not include verse counts (cf. Santucci, in An Outline of Vedic Literature; in the RV there are 432,000 syllables, 153,826 words, and "about 10,000 lines of verse" [1976: 1]). The Family Books contain just over 1/3 of the volume of RV (38%) material while the later books contain just less than 2/3 (62%). The total number of RV verses is 10509, of these 3985 are found in the Family Books and 6524 are in the later portions. Accordingly, where I compare between the older and younger portions of RV materials, I will note that the "relative frequency" is significant when it is, and otherwise will simply offer a statistical total when it is not. As in this case with the 29 occasions of R'Si in the Family Books compared to 78 in the later portions, the word in nominally more frequent in the later books.

75 The only other case of R'shi in the Family Books, 7.28.2b identifies Indra as the guard/paási of the R'shi's bráhman (bráhma yát paási shavasinn R'SiiNaam ).

76 The Atharva Veda Paippalaada and Shaunaka show 42 plural/4 singular and 27 plural/5 singular occasions of R'Si, respectively. In the MaitraayaNii, KaaThaka, and Taittiriiya SaMhitaas the distribution for R'Si of plural to singular is fairly equal and the relative frequency of use shows a continued increase (26, 31, 36 occasions of singular and plural combined, respectively).

77 There are only 11 occasions of vípra in the Paippalaada and 6 in the Shaunaka, and then 5, 8 and 6 total occasions in the MaitraayaNii (no plural), KaaThaka, and Taittiriiya (no plural) SaMhitaas respectively. For the period of BraahmaNa Prose, the drop in frequency is even more prominent with only 6 occasions in the Aitareya BraahmaNa and 10 in the Shatapatha BraahmaNa.

78 Kaví decreases steadily in relative frequency in the Paippalaada (17 plural and 16 singular) and in the Shaunaka (11 plural and 10 singular) SaMhitaas, then continues to taper in the MaitraayaNii (26), KaaThaka (31), and Taittiriiya (21) SaMhitaas, and is virtually absent from the Aitareya BraahmaNa (7) and the Shatapatha BraahmaNa (5).

79 Brahmán shows only 26 nominative singulars in the whole of the RV; 4, 15, and 10 in the KaaThaka, and Taittiriiya (no plural) SaMhitaas respectively; and 22 in the Shaunaka SaMhitaa. The Paippalaada SaMhitaa of the Atharva Veda contains a voluminous number of unaccented forms in both singular and plural, as does the Aitareya BraahmaNa.

80 The use of bráhman is quite infrequent with each term: kaví (6 occasions out of 113 total occurrences in the Family Books, none are in RV 7), vípra (6 occasions out of the 99 total occurrences in the Family Booksfive of which occur in RV 7 and one other, 6.35.5), and R'Si (2 occasions out of 29 total occurrences in the Family Books--both in RV 7).

81 Kaví is found with the highest relative frequency in RV 3--32 times or over 25% of the total 113 occasions in the Family books for kaví in one of the two smallest Family Collections (RV 3 and 4 are each 6% of the total RV hymns). Of the remaining occasions of kaví (slightly less than 75%),RV 5 contains 25%. Vípra is also relatively more frequent in RV 3 and 7.

82 With the kaví, forms of -man occur 6 times in RV 3 (3.3.1; 3.8.4; 3.14.1; 3.29.5; 3.38.1-2) and in RV 7 only once in 7.87.3. With the vípra, forms of -man are found 6 times (3.5.3; 3.8.5; 3.11.7; 3.14.5; 3.31.5; 3.50.4) and RV 7 only 3 times (7.2.2; 7.22.4; 7.68.8). Forms of -dhii are only slightly more frequent in RV 7 than are forms of -man, but the distribution is equal between RV 3 and RV 7, so--in terms of relative frequency--both mental processes most frequently associated with bráhman in the Family Books are more frequently attributed to the liturgists in RV 3 than in RV 7. As we will see in the later portions of the RV, -man and -dhii are quite frequent with bráhman almost to the complete exclusion of -cit and -budh. Considering that Witzel has suggested (1989: 160, also 1997) that RV 3 can possibly be considered as later even than RV 7 (viz. the Family Books) because of its tendency toward innovation, this data would support that hypothesis. When we consider below that RV 7 contains the majority of occasions where bráhman is directly associated with vípra, and that bráhman is never associated with mental processes in RV 7, the hypothesis of the later or more innovative content in RV 3 is also supported. It is also worth considering that, apart from RV 4, there are altogether few occasions of -man and -dhii with either of the three liturgist terms. If the increased importance of mental activity coincides with the increased abstraction of the Vedic cosmos in the later books, the limited number of wrods related to mental processes associated with the priests and poets in all of the Family Books save RV 3 would, again, point to it as innovative and, consequently, a later book.

83 Geldner renders this "Wir rufen dich, den Herrn der (Sänger)scharen an, den hochberühmtesten Weisen der Weisen, den Oberherrn der Segensworte, o BrahmaNaspati. Höre uns an und setz dich mit deinene Hilfen auf deinen Sitz!" (1951, I: 303). Also Muir: "We invoke thee, BrahmaNaspati, the commander of hosts, the wise, the most highly renowned of sages, the monarch of prayers; do thou hear us, and take thy place on our hearth, bringing succour" (1967, V: 276, cf. note about this in 1967, I: 242).

84 Similarly, with consistent translation of praise for bráhman, is Geldner: "Behute du uns vor Not, o Jaashavedas, vor dem Bosewicht! Schütz uns, du Seher des Segenswortes!" (1951, II: 111).

85 Or Geldner: "Wann werden die Hohepriesterschaften im Wagen ihren Sitz haben? Wann wirst du dem Sänger schenken, was Tausenden zur Nahrung dient? Wann wirst du den Lobgesang dieses (Sängers) mit Reichtum außtatten? Wann Wirst du die Gedichte durch reichen Gewinn belohnt machen?" (1951, II: 132).

86 Cf. also 7.61.2 (see below), and 7.72.3. In both cases, bráhman is in the nominative.

87 Geldner has "Dem Umfänglichen, Mächtigen erzeugen die Beredten ein Loblied, dem indra eine erbauliche Rede" (1951, II: 208). Muir leaves uruvyácase mahíne untranslated: ". . . The sages generated an efficacious production and a prayer for Indra" (1967, III: 238).

88 Geldner again furnishes a form of "bereden" in the sense of eloquent discussion or persuasion and adds an additional noun to denote bráhman in some sense as prayer or praise (cf. Loblied above in 7.31.11): "deren unvergleichliche beredte Segensworte sich nach allen Seiten verteilen wie die Aste eines Baumes" (1951, II: 208).

89 Again, Geldner attributes a meaning relating to the prayer for bráhman: "Mögen auch die früheren RSii's und die neueren, die Redegewaltigen, dir, Indra, erbauliche Worte gedichtet haben" (1951, II: 202). Muir has discussed this hymn several times and does not seem to recognize the existence of--or understand--vípra in the passage, taking it adjectivally as a modification of R'Si as "wise": "Indra, the wise rishis, both ancient and modern, have generated prayers" (1967, III: 237; also II: 198; and almost identical I: 243).

90 For 10a-b, Elizarenkova offers "(Drive) Vaata's (horse) teams, the most easily harnessed horses! / Even this poet has left, looking for help" (1995: 151); similar to Geldner who furnishes "lenken": "(Lenke) die Gespanne des Vaata, wie gutgeschirrte Rosse; sogar dieser seher is schutsuchend gekommen. Alle marut waren dabei deine Genossen; ihre erbaulichen Zusprüche stärkten deine Kraft, Indra" (1951, II: 30).

91 The metric cadence is deemed irregular for this verse by Van Nooten and Holland (1994: 615). It is in this verse that the mythology of Indra and Kutsa is integrated with Ushánas. Arnold also notes the irregular opening for this verse alone of RV 5.31.8 (1967: 196): tvám apó yádave turváshaayaáramayaH sudúghaaH paará indra | ugrám ayaatam ávaho ha kútsaM sáM ha yád vaam ushánaáranta devaáH ||.

92 The Jaiminiiya BraahmaNa (1.128) and the PañcaviMsha BraahmaNa (9.2.22) tell of Kutsa's rivalry with Lusha for Indra's attention. Kutsa binds Indra by the scrotum, Lusha challenges him to escape, which he does, and it is Kutsa who successfully calls Indra back with the appropriate chant (thereafter called the Kautsa, cf. also note 165). JB 1.128 extends the outcome of this event to the explanation of the bifurcated nature of Indra, that of his greatness/mahan and his self/aatmán with Lusha receiving the former and Kutsa winning the latter. Clearly the greatness of Indra becomes a thing of the past in the later tradition (that which was becoming "current" by the time of final redaction for the RVe.g. the brahmahatya of Indra) and the prominence of the self becomes central. Cf. also RV 7.19.2.

93 It is significant for the current discussion that JB 1.125 opens with bRhaspatir devaanaaM purohita aasiid ushanaa kaavyo 'suraaNaam; and both priests are considered equal in their brahmaakriyata. Cf. also PañcaviMsha BraahmaNa 7.5.20; and BaudhayaNa Shrauta Suutra 18.46.

94 See also 2.12.6a; 2.39.1c; son of a brahmán in 2.43.2b, 4.9.4c; a functionary who, when treated well, brings benefit to the king in 4.50.8d and 9d; brahmán as a metaphor for GhRta's (sacrificial clarified butter as an offering) role with the gods; 5.31.4c as above; 5.32.12c (to be discussed below re. vípra); part of the proper name brahmán atri as he sets the press-stones in the Soma sacrifice in 5.40.8a; 6.45.7a see below; 7.7.5b; 7.33.11b in praise of the VasiSTha's; 7.42.1a. Cf. those devoted to sacred knowledge or the family thereof, brahmaNyá, 2.19.1, 8; 4.24.2d; 6.21.8b. Muir observes that several stages of development have occurred with brahmán- -such as 7.33.11 where a devoted sage of prayer is implied, or in 4.50.9d where a public officiant of praise is implied, or finally the period when a particular kind of priest with special duties is implied as in 2.1.2 (1967, I: 243ff., see also Chapter 5, n. 139).

95 Cf., Geldner: "Den Kenner der erbaulichen Rede, den die ebbauliche Rede anzieht, den preislichen Freund rufe ich mit Lobreden wie eine Kuh zum Melken" (1951, II: 140); or Muir "With hymns I call Indra, the brahman, --the carrier of prayers (brahma-vaahasam), the friend who is worthy of praise,--as men do a cow which is to be milked" (1967, I: 244).

96 In effect, proper manipulation of praises will cause Indra to behave as a priest under the commission of a yájamaana, which is the unspoken comparison with the cow to be milked. It is the offering of prayer which brings forth the gifts, or milk, and it is the priest who possesses these tools. The "theme" being explained in the analogy is the magnitude of Indra's beneficence in response to offerings of bráhman. The "phoros," or more common conception used by way of similitude to illustrate this point is the milked cow likened, in turn, to the brahmán and his employment of bráhman. In the analogy presented in 6.45, the yájamaana "prays" (i.e. "asks of") to the brahmán to beseech the gods for sustenance of some kind. Thus the passage here applies this familiar exchange to the realm of the gods: it is the brahmán (here, Indra) who is a cow to be milked. The offerings are the active power which squeezes forth the milk, the blessings or boons. Such multiple meanings, conveyed with this form of metaphorical ellipsis (the priest/brahmán-cow and prayer/bráhman- milking being implied, not spoken), is not uncommon to Vedic hymns. As Elizarenkova, Renou, and Gonda have noted, ellipsis is widespread in the Vedas. Renou, however, attributes this only to linguistic phenomena ["Le probléme de l'ellipse dans le Rgveda," Etudes védiques et paaNinéennes, Vol . I, (1955: 38f.). Gonda identifies two broad kinds, those which must be deduced from a wider mythological context and those which can be deduced by syntactic analysis in Ellipsis, Brachylogy and Other Forms of Brevity in Speech in the Rgveda, (1960: 6f.). The former kind which he described--that inferred from a wider context--would be the form of ellipsis taking place here. Further, as Elizarenkova notes, that it need not be only a wider mythological context from which an omitted word may be drawn but even a vast omission of implied meaning--brachylogy--is also employed to convey mystery (1995: 277f.).

97 This is one of three occasions of the word in RV 6--only 5 other times is the compound brahma-vaahasam to be found in the RV, all in the earliest material with one occurrence in the first addition to the Family Books, RV Late-a, in 1.101.9.

98 The sixth MaNDala has the largest number of hymns to Indra (RV 3 is, by ratio, more concentrated upon Indra with 24 of its 62 hymns devoted to the deity).

99 I am employing the system of marking for ShB accent argued by Cardona, based upon the BhaaSika Suutra (1.10ff) which suggests, among other things, that the ShB preserves only the udaatta and anudaatta accents (Cardona, 1993: 1f.). Accordingly, he extrapolates that the mss. are annotated to reflect this, marking only anudaatta with an understroke.

100 Cf. Geldner: "Zu ihm, dem Ersten unter Vielen im Wettstreit der vielen Sänger, die um die Siegerpreise wetteifern" (1951, II: 142).

101 Also Geldner: "Unser Loblied soll dir das anziehendste sein, am maisten nahe gehen, indra! Sporn uns zu großenReichtum an!" (1951, II: 142).

102 Also Geldner, "Zu diesem vor Zeiten geborenen, alterlosen Indra have ich mit vortrefflichem Gedicht, mit Preisliedern für euch geschrieen. Segen und Lobreden werden auf ihn vereinigt, und der große Preisgesang möge an Indra stark werden. Indra, den das Opfer und der Soma stärken möge, das Segenswort, die Lobrede, die Lobgedichte und Gebete stärken mögen -- stärke auch du ihn bei dem Kommen der USas aus dem Dunkel -- es mögen die Monate, Herbste, Tage den Indra stark machen" (1951, II: 134-135).

103 A more annotated version of the last two paada's: "impel these prayers, now you've awakened (aor. causative dual jigRtám per Graßmann, [1996: 386]) bounty, exhaust the wants/envies/áraatii (accusative plural of feminine short "i" áraati) of the jealous ones (per Grundbegriffe von Graßmann, "verlangden" [1996: 1210])/vanúSaam toward the favorable one/aryó." Geldner deals with the conclusion of the passage this way: "Dieser Lobpreis ist für euch beide, o BrahmaNaspati; dem Indra mit der Keule ward eine Erbauung bereitet. Begünstiget die frommen Gedanken, wecket die Freigebigkeit; dämpfet die Mißgunst des Nebenbuhlers, der Eifersüchtigen!" (1951, II: 267-268).

104 Portions of the final shloka are seen in various forms in 3 other places in the RV, specifically the paada: aviSTám dhíyo jigRtám púraMdhiir (4.50.11c, 7.64.5c, 7.65.5c). In each case, the hymn in question entails a matter of rivalry to be resolved by proper invocations to Indra and BrahmaNaspati (here in 7.97), Indra and BRhaspati (in 4.50), and Mitra-VaruNa (7.64, 65).

105 Similarly, but differing with regard to bráhman, is Geldner: "Gepriesen und gelobt mögest du nun dem Sänger Speise anschwellen lassen wie die Flüße, o Indra. Es ist dir aufs neue eine erbauung gemacht worden, du Falbenlenker. Möchten wir durch die Dichtung immergewinnende Wagenlenker sein" (1951, I: 437).

106 Elizarenkova notes this is a common use of the injunctive to transpose the time frame a legendary achievement--frequently of Indra as here--to a present need (1995: 189-190). In private electronic correspondence, Witzel has noted (April 5, 1998) that the function of the Injunctive is "extra-temporal and merely reminds listeners of the facts they already know [emph. original]."

107 The common translation of mánas as "spirit" (e.g. Bodewitz, 1991), is not clearly justified in the early RV. The attendant elements of a "spirit"such as a location for its existence, like a body, are not found within its semantic field. While it is clearly more related to a spiritual notion in the later literature, it is more properly a word to denote attendant mental faculties with worship and prayer. The two forms of -man which are prominent throughout both earlier and later portions of the RV are forms of mánas/mind or intellect, manyú/ardor, zeal, passion (loosely, "spirit," in the sense of "spirited"hence the metonymy with aayú, ajá, and jiivá) and, especially, the feminine maniiSaá/thought or reflection. However, in the immediate semantic field of bráhman we have only 2 occasions of mánas (6.40.4, 7.33.11), and one each of manyú (7.60.11), and maniiSaá (7.70.5).

108 I take in the Vedic sense of "like/as," as does Geldner, ("Auf euch, Mitra und VaruNa, hebt der wahrhafte redekundige {Sänger} weithin hörbar seine Dichtung an, dessen erbauliche Worte ihr Wohlwollende günstig aufnehmen möget, auf daß ihr seine Jahre vollzählig machet, wie er es im Sinn hat" [1951, II: 237]), according to its usage with the instrumental krátvaa. Muir does not take this way, concluding the shloka as "so that for (many) autumns ye may not be satiated with his [the poet's?] fervour" (1967, III: 240). Geldner is somewhat different with regard to sharádaH, separating it in his interpretation from krátvaa ná. It seems to follow, however, more logically to go with Graßmann who suggests "Herbst, etwa als die Zeit des Früchtebrechens" for sharádaH, with a secondary sense--like Geldner--of "Jahr, in diesem Sinne." The former rendering is more consistent with krátvaa whose meaning of will, intent, and purpose would support the more prominent feature of autumn, the harvest, which is also a likely metaphor for the response of Mitra-VaruNa to skillful/sukrátu exaltations/bráhmaaNi.

109 Cf. article suggesting that bráhman means 'magic of growth,' "bráhman" in Festschrift für Jacobi (1926).

110 E.g., a petition to god, a supplication, thanksgiving, and humble request according to the OED (1989, XII: 292).

111 There are variances in declension from period to period: e.g with nominative singular tanuúH--RV Family Books have 3, RV 8 has 1 and RV 10 has 4, MS has 41, KS has 48, TS has 36, AV Paipalaada has 12, and AV Shaunaka has 10; and with accusative singular tanvám the RV Family Books have 15, the later RV has 30 (only two of which are in the older portion of the 1st MaNDala and only two in the older part of the 8th MaNDala), the MS 18, the KS 32, TS has none, the AV Paipalaada has 44 and the AV Shaunaka has 31; but the RV forms predominate over the Black Yajur Veda forms with the instrumental singular tanvaá: the Family Books have 21, the later MaNDala's have 13, the MS has 16, the KS has 15, none in the TS, the AV Paipalaada has 21 as does the Shaunaka; also with the dative singular tanvé: 7 in the Family Books, 15 in the later MaNDala's, 2 in the MS, 8 in the KS, none in the TS, and 11 each in the AV Paipalaada and Shaunaka. For the present purposes, it is interesting to note that the Family Books and the later RV use tanuú in the instrumental--a presence by means of which a deity bestows favorthan as an agent in the nominative. This suggests that the BYV has an altogether more active role played by tanuú than we find in the RV which supports, in turn, its meaning of presence or self. It would seem that in the KS especially, all forms are proportionately more frequent, while the later TS drops off substantially--with the exception of the nominative--and in each case the earliest Black Yajur Veda text, the MS, consistently trails the KS. It is quite apparent, however, that all three Black Yajur Veda texts consider tanuú as an independent agent--far and beyond the other SaMhitaa's combined--with their use of the nominative singular. The distribution with the nominative plural, tanváH, is relatively even: RV Family/15, later RV/31, MS/28, KS/29, no TS, AVP/40, and AVSh/28. The other forms in plural are less common: locative plural tanuúSu (RV Family/7, later RV/16, MS/2, KS/3, TS/1, AVP/4, AVSh/2); instrumental plural tanuúbhis (RV Family/6, later RV/4, MS/10, KS/7, TS/4, AVP/8, AVSh/5); and dative plural tanuúbhyaH (RV 10/1, MS/1, KS/2, no TS, AVP/1, AVSh/2).

112 The other words often associated with body--kaaya and gaátra--are virtually nonexistent in the SaMhitaa's as a whole (kaaya is found once each in the AV Paipalaada and Shaunaka, and gaátra is used about 90 times in the various SaMhitaa's, never in the Family books, only 8 times in the later RV and most frequently in the AVP and AVSh, and 26 assorted occasions in the Black Yajur Veda, 5 in the older MS, 12 in the KS, and 9 in the TS). These are clearly later terms.

113 There are 2 occasions of another derivative, déhii/an embankment or wall (i.e. something "built up") in the RV, in 6.47.2, and 7.6.5. In 7.6.5, the sense of déhi as a wall or embankment is clear, for example, where Agni helps break them down with weapons (yó dehyó ánamayad vadhasnaír), and 99 forts of Shambara battered down by Indra in 6.47.2d (ví navatíM náva ca dehyó hán).

114 It usually refers to form as in shape, and does not seems to designate corporeal body per se. For example, the priase to Indra in RV 3.38.7d refers to the varying forms/ruupá which Indra as bull receives and the ruupá is shaped around him (ní maayíno mamire ruupám asmin). Cf. also 2.13.3; 5.52.13; 5.52.11; 5.81.2; 6.47.18; 7.55.1; 7.97.6; etc.

115 Geldner allows the verse to more readily stand on its own: "In jegliche Gestalt verändert sich der Gabenreiche am eignen Leib Verwandlungen annehmend . . ." (1951, I: 393). It is worth noting the less corporeal "Leib" is chosen than "Körper."

116 It is only in battle that the human tanuú is anything other than frail, and then, it shines as with the rivals in 6.25.4. See also 6.46.12, 7.30.2, 7.93.5, and 7.95.3.

117 A recent discussion in April of 1997 on the Indology Listserve (INDOLOGY@LISTSERV.LIV.AC.UK), entitled "Rig Veda, ta'ntra, nUl, and sUtra," at: This discussion offered a similar consensus as regards the sense of -tan as "to spread"--in this case with regard to the connection with images of weaving in a microcosmic and symbolic macrocosmic sense.

118 In this translation of -tan, Elizarenkova's attention to her own particular diachronic study of the relation between this world and the divine is integral to her interpretation (1995: 8).

119 Translating tanuú as "presence," or as "life," raises the question as to how aayú should be considered. Both terms are in the same hymn two times throughout the Family Books, in RV 3.3; 3.53. In Chapter 5 we encounter RV 1.89.9 where it is apparent that the grander life as a course of events shared by animate beings with birth and death cycles is meant by aayú while tanuú refers, as here, to a given presence within that cycle.

120 RV 2.17.2c-d, 3.48.3c-d and 4a-b, 5.80.4a-b, 7.8.5c-d, and 7.95.3c-d; as well as occasions with the accusative singular where a deity shines toward or is turned in attention to a laud, 3.1.1c-d, 3.18.4, 3.51.11a-b, 6.11.2c-d, and 6.66.4c-d.

121 Geldner takes Graßmann's option of "Überlegenheit" for táruSi, where I have taken Kampf (1996: 531): "Ein Tapferer überwindet wohl den Tapferen durch seine Leibes(stärke), wenn zwei am Körper Glänzende einen Handel haben um die Überlegenheit" (1951, II: 124).

122 Geldner is more ambiguous with tanuú: "Neben die Sonne dich stellend, daß deine, des Unsterblichen, Gestalt in die Augen fällt" (1951, 1: 437).

123 Maurer comes up with a workable reading, taking arkaír as lightning, but it requires reading bráhman as prayer: "Indra, splitter of strongholds, overcame the Daasa with bolts of lightning, finding wealth, dividing up his enemies. Impelled by prayer, expanded in body, with plentiful gifts he filled up both worlds" (1986: 53). Geldner maintains arkaír as a meaning of prayer, but also suggests the same for bráhman: "Indra, der Burgenbrecher hat den Daasa mit Zaubergesängen überwunden, der Finder des Gutes, der die Feindeaufteilt. Durch das Kraftwort angegfeuert, am Leibe erstarkt, erfüllte der Gabenreiche beide Welthäften " (1951, I: 374).

124 Similarly, 2.1.9 (tanuurúcam), 2.35.13, 3.45.2, 6.40.4, 7.56.11, 7.30.2, and 7.72.1.

125 I have posted this question to the Indology discussion list originally under the subject line: "Re: bodhi- correction" and multiple responses assented to this occasion of bodhi ( The occasions where we find -budh are those with bodhi and these are in hymns to Agni (2.9.1; 3.15.2; 4.16.17; and 5.4.9; plus one to Indra, using a similar semantic field with avitaá). Under the circumstances here with tanuú, either root could work. Agni is frequently the embryo or germ/gárbha in living things, as well as their engenderer ( 2.1.1; 2.1.14; 3.1.13; 3.2.10; 3.6.2; 3.6.5; 3.55.4; 6.8.3; 7.5.4; 7.5.7). Or, as in 3.15.2, the waking or coming to be/bodhi of the sun is paralleled to birth of Agni in the tanuú (Cf. also Norman W. Brown, "The Sources and Nature of púruSa in the PúruSasuukta ( Rg Veda 10.90)," JAOS 51, 1931, pp. 108-118). Passages such as these contrive to awaken Agni in the microcosmic presence of the tanuú as gárbha and in the macrocosm as divine intercessionary force. As tanuú implies an attenuated presence or, with Reat and Elizarenkova, et al, what is drawn out (cf. dehnen, Dauer) the micro-macrocosmic awakening is interwoven (cf. -tan as including weaving, shining, and spreading). This shared meaning of the imperative bodhi warrants further study which, beyond note 30 above, lies outside the immediate purposes of this dissertation.

126 There are a few occasions where the discussion turns to a web woven or a thread spun out to define the area of the sacrifice the priests are said to extend, or stretch forth the sacrifice/tanvate ( 5.13.3, 5.47.6a, 5.79.9a, and 7.10.2a). These are among the few occasions where the mechanism of the sacrifice is spoken of in an abstract or explicatory way in the early RV. This theme is revisited in Chapter 6 with the increase of sacrificial and cosmogonic speculation.

127 2.21.6, 2.23.8, 2.33.14, 2.39.4, 2.39.6, 3.53.18, 4.2.14, 4.16.17, 4.16.20, 4.24.3, 5.4.9, 5.70.3, 6.46.4, 6.46.12, 6.48.2, 6.74.3 (twice), 6.75.1, 7.30.2, 7.86.2, 7.93.5, 7.95.3, 7.104.10 (twice).

128 We do find occasions with -budh, however these often fall into a unique category wherein there is as much chance that the root is -bhuu as -budh. For instance, the genitive plural tanuúnaam shows up twice with the imperative--bodhi--of -budh as seen in RV 5.4.9c-d (ágne atriván námasaa gRNaanò smaákam bodhy avitaá tanuúnaam ), "Agni, bowed to with praise like Atri, awaken--or be--as protector of our lives." Or Geldner, translating bodhi as a form of -bhuu: "Agni, wie von Atri unter Verbeugung gepriesen, sei der Beschützer underer Leiber!" (1951, II: 7) offers this same sense of tanuú. Both -budh and -bhuu produce bodhi as irregular imperative aorists, see note 30 above. With -cit there are only two occurrences: one occasion where the dative singular tanvé is to be protected by having any hostility/dvéSaH remain unnoticed/acíttaM (RV 6.46.12c-d), also one active form, second dual cetathas, (4.45.6).

129 Or Geldner, "Ich begieße ihn (mit Schmalz), der nach allen Seiten (sein Gesicht) sukehrt. Arglosen Sinnes möge er sich's schmecken lassen. Schön wie ein junger Mann, auf seine Farben eifersüchtig läßt sich Agni nicht berühren, wenn er mit seinem Leib auf und ab flackert" (1951, I: 286).

130 E.g. as noted earlier with N 8.17 re. RV 10.110.10 upaávasRja tmányaa samañján devaánaam paátha Rtuthaá haviíMSi | cited by way of a discussion of the lord of herbs, vanaspati , note the gloss of tmán: upaavasRjaatmanaatmaatmaanaM, cf. also N 3.22, re. RV 1.185.1; and N 6.21, re. RV 1.142.10).

131 Curiously enough in this connection, the discussion by Yaaska in N 3.13-15 with tanuú, is concerned with meanings of aatmán. However, the connection between 3.14 re. -tan and 3.15 re. aatmán seems purely mnemonic. N 3.14 closes with the suggestion that thieves/táskara could be so-named due to their actions being spread/-tan through day and night. N 3.15 begins with RV 10.40.2 which asks where one is to be found during night and day. After ambling through etymologies of various words in the mantra, Yaaska cites several verses in the context of explaining -as, one of which (RV 10.97.11) contains aatmán and thus serves as a catalyst to the etymology with -at/to go or -aap/to obtain. As it so happens, RV 10.97, in praise of herbs/óSadhi includes aatmán several times, with púruSa twice in the same paada (10.97.4d and .8d), as well as an occasion of tanuú in 10d. It is also in a discussion of óSadhi, this time RV 7.101 in praise of Parjanya, god of rains for crops, that we find one of the first two appearances of aatmán in the RV, also in a hymn containing tanuú. Unfortunately, to my knowledge, theoretical groundwork--and in some ways, groundwork of almost any kind--in such meta-textual reading (i.e. was Yaaska intentionally alluding to the changing vocabulary for the self with his "apparently" haphazard choice of verses, etc.) of Nirukta does not exist. It is also hard to overlook the meta-textual riddles, and possible rhetorical intent in his choice of mantras in light of his own statement in N 2.3 regarding caution as to whom--e.g. not to a stranger or someone avidyaa--one chooses to explain the syllables (this, interestingly enough, comes in connect with the etymology of púruSa, wherein he uses a passage from the Taittiriiya AAraNyaka (10.10.3) which is a mystical discussion of the golden embryo/híraNyagarbhá and immortality/amR'ta). I note it here that these occasions where a simply etymology and an apparent haphazard passage choice open onto complex and often mystical set of passages are not uncommon and deserve further study. In addition, as will be seen here and below, Yaaska chooses RV passages where we find the use of tanuú and tmán in early hymns which contain those words which came to supplant them in the later literature--aatmán and púruSa. This is worth noting considering his gloss of tmán with aatmán. Whether this has any rhetorical value with regard to the connection--if any--between tanuú, tmán, and aatmán remains to be seen, but it is an intriguing germ for subsequent research.

132 Also Geldner, "Der HotR wandelt in eigner Person festen Schrittes herum, der angenehme, süßredende, rechttuende Agni" (1951, I: 427).

133 Or Geldner with pronominal "selbst" for tmán, "Mit seinen Söhnen wird die Söhne des Neiders überwinden, mit Kühen seinen Reichtum ausbreiten -- er merkt es (an sich) selbst" (1951, I: 308).

134 Similarly, Geldner, "Der gleichsam von selbst weggelaufen war, den Agni, der dort verborgen war" (1951, I: 347).

135 See also 2.1.6d, 2.2.9d, 2.19.7b, 2.32.4b, 3.3.10d, 4.4.9a (tmán), 4.29.4c (tmáni), 4.53.5d, 5.5.9b, 5.25.8d, 5.43.9d (tmán), 5.52.2d, 5.52.6e, 5.52.8d, 5.87.4c, 6.12.3c, 6.49.5 (tmáne), 7.17.20d, 7.34.5b, 7.34.6a, 7.57.7c.

136 This notion of "all things moving and fixed" has occurred elsewhere in this study. Significant for the current discussion is the example of 10. 121.3a-b, discussed below, of praaNá/breath, jágato/what moves, and nimiSató/what winks its eyes as ruled by Ka/Prajaapati (yáh praaNató nimiSató mahitvaíka íd raajaa jágato babhuuva). The association between aatmán and breath is implied by this similarlity of semantic field in the decidedly later hymns of RV 10.

137 Compare Geldner "Bald wird er eine unfruchtbare Kuh, bald gebiert er; nach Belieben wandelt er seinen Leib" (1951, II: 271).

138 Geldner is similar, "Parjanya, der den keim der Pflanzen, (die Leibesfrucht) der Kühe, der Roße under der Weiber bereitet" (1951, II: 271).

139 Oldenberg suggests that this differs from occasion to occasion (1894: 284 n. 285). Geldner (Ved. Stud. II: 145) suggests the categorical designation of the main priest of the sacrifice. It is worth noting that, as in RV 2.1.3 where BrahmaNaspati is the finder wealth (brahmá rayavíd) it is not decisive either way. The hymn is to Agni, and the passage simply indicates a function of Agni as priest to the godsa conveyor of prayersnot necessarily designating a social class when viewed in isolation. But, as discussed in Chapter 4, RV 2.1.2, Agni takes the role of hótR, néSTR, ádhvaryu and brahmán. Also, RV 4.50.9d (brahmáNe raájaa tám avanti devaáH) seems to imply a class. RV 7.33.11b also seems to refer to a class in terms of the role of VasiSTha (urváshyaa brahman mánaso 'dhi jaatáH). This would not necessarily argue for Odenberg's position as he cites it, however, as 7.33 is a later addition (Arnold: 1967, Witzel, 1995b: 311) and thus remains consistent with the designation of a known class. In the Late RV, for instance 10.52.2d (brahmaá samíd bhavati ÿsaahutir vaam), it is more the hótaa in 2a, and the ádhvaryu in 2c that is the focus, possibly allowing a more generic meaning. By contrast, 10.88.19c-d (taávad dadhaati úpa yajñám aayán braahmaNó hótur ávaro niSiídan) leaves no room for ambiguity: it must be the class that is the reference. It still remains ill-advised to unilaterally apply the later prominence of the brahmán class from these scattered early occasions of the term. RV 9.96.6a-b contains of a roll call of prayer priests (brahmaá devaánaam padaviíH kaviinaám R'Sir vípraaNaam mahiSó mRgaáNaam) where brahmán is clearly a class of prayer-related priest. The status of that class is still unclear however. Statistically, the data collected here with R'Sii, vípra, and kaví, especially regarding their prominence in the plural when compared with the scarcity of brahmán both plural and singular, would appear to leave the issue undecided. But statistical data cannot replace contextual analysis and, in this case, appears contrary to the evidence which, instead, supports Geldner. I would simply qualify the matter by stating that, while a vocational class is the predominantly applicable implication of the occasions for brahmán that exist, their scarcity and comparative infrequency compared with other "poet words" would indicate that a clearly defined varNa was not always--if ever until RV 10.90--signified. "Main priest" of the sacrifice is, perhaps, not universally applicable (cf. Chapter 4, and Muir, 1967, I: 243ff.). It is more likely that the word was in process of becoming more and more on par with the other functionary designations such as hótR, &c. As this matter is not germane to the developing terminology of the self beyond the confines of this notethis is more properly a socio-historical issuea full study of these occasions, while warranted, is ancillary to the purposes of this dissertation.

140 There are no occasions where either vípra, R'Sii, or kaví are found with both brahmán and with bráhman and only twice in the same hymn, 8.45 (kave/14a, brahmadvíSo/23c, and brahmábhya/39c); and 9.96 (in 6a-b with brahmaá in a roll call with prayer related speakers vípra, R'Sii, and kaví and then bráhman in 10c where Soma Pavamaana, king of all existence/bhúvanasya raájaa is to find a path for prayer while cleansed/vidád gaatúm bráhmaNe puuyámaanaH). There also are only two occasions where brahmán is found with any of the three other words for poets. We find R'Sii with brahmán in its direct semantic fields in the aatmastuti RV 10.125.5c-d of Vaac for instance (similarly also see 10.107.6a, in praise of the dákSiNaa/fee): yáM kaamáye táM- tam ugráM kRNomi tám brahmaáNaM tám R'SiM táM sumedhaám ||: "Whom I wish to, I make him him powerful, I make him a Brahmán, I make him a Seer, I make him nourishing." I'm inclined to think that the verbal ministrations of a brahmán and those of a R'Sii, while assuredly wise and intelligent/sumedhaám, are more specifically nourishing to the goddess of speech. The repetition of -aam/aM are the sound-hints Elizarenkova and others have pointed out which identify Vaac as the speaker (1995: 135). Geldner differs: "Wen ich lieve, immer nur den mache ich zu einem Gewaltigen, ihn zu einem Hohenpriester, ihn zu einem RSi, ihn zu einem Weisen" (1951, III: 356); as does Maurer, choosing to take sumedhaám as qualifying tám: "Whome'er I wish to, I make him powerful, him a priest, him a seer, him of goodly wisdom" (1986: 281; also Elizarenkova, "wise man," 1995: 108; and Muir, "intelligent," 1967, III: 258). Remembering the Seer/R'Sii and the brahmán/priest make their offerings to the gods, and if enwisened by Vaac they could do so more efficiently, at the very least the polysemy of works as both nourishing and wise.

141 In RV 8.64 we have the enemies of prayer being driven off in 1c (áva brahmadvíSo jahi) and a question as to which priest ministers to Indra in 7c (brahmaá kás táM saparyati), also in 8.45 as noted above with enemies of prayer to not be fondly held by Agni and Indra (maákiim brahmadvíSo vanaH).

142 Geldner is informative with regard to the sense of bráhman, translating it somewhat more freely: "Es laufen zusammen die Reste des wahrhaft Gewaltigen, Hohen; es kommen die Säfte des Saftigen zusammen. Unter feierlicher Rede geläutert o Falber, fließe für Indra ringsum ab, o Saft! Wo, o Pavamaana, der Hohepriester in gebunderner Rede sprechend mit dem Preßtein (in der Hand) bei Soma sich erhaben fühlt, durch den Soma Wonne wirkend, da fließe usw." (1951, III: 119).

143 As in the Family Books, the vípra impels Indra in 6.35.5d, or in the frequent use of vípra with bráhman by the VasiSTha's in RV 7.22.9b, 7.31.11b,. 7.43.1, 7.61.2, and 7.72.3.

144 Geldner is similar, but substantially more graceful (!) "Von Suunor Maana gepriesen, brachtet ihr Ashvin dem Redegewaltigen den Siegerpreis, ihr Eilige; bei Agastya durch feierliche Rede erbaut, machtet ihr Naasatya's die Vishpalaa heil" (1951, III: 158).

145 The idea of "given a spoke" or "quickened" is suggested by the iron prosthesis created for Vishpalaa by the divine doctors, the Ashvins (Macdonell and Keith, 1982: 308-309).

146 In RV 10.47.3 they are in the same verse. The great R'Si's bring wealth and riches with their good impelling ministrations to Indra (subráhmaaNaM devávantam bRhántam urúM gabhiirám pRthúbudhnam indra | shrutáRSim ugrám abhimaatiSaáham asmábhyaM citráM vR'SaNaM rayíM daaH ).

147 Only in RVKh 4.9.6-7 do we see bráhman and kaví, with the former found in 7 and the latter found in 6. An additional occasion of kaví is also in RVKh 4.9.2. This Khila is a preface to RV 10.152.1 (N. S. Sontakke and C. G. Kashikar, Rgveda SaMhitaa with the Commentary of SaayaNaacaarya, Vol 4, Poona: Vaidika SaMshodhana MaNDala, 1946, p. 969), a hymn to Indra which is a praise of the VRtra victory and does not immediately lend itself to inclusions of references to praise-givers (and there are no other such words in the hymn). The Khila is somewhat ad hoc as regards meter according to Usha R. Bhise, The Khila Suuktas of the Rgveda: A Study (1995:172), and includes both vípra and kaví in RVKh 4.9.2b. It is an obvious enough occasions to invoke praise-giving terminology as the Khila extols Agni as the inspired messenger/vípra carrying the words of great seers/kaví, like Apnavaana, Aurva, BhRgu and Jamadagni to the gods. Indra is not mentioned. The Khila concretizes the myth into the sacrificial lore. The use of bráhman in 7c establishes power in Agni/áviivRdhat via sacrifice and prayer.

148 It is worth noting the all four praise-giver terms are in this mystic hymn of Diirgatamas, kaví in 5d refers to those who stretched out the seven threads on which the universe is woven, who alone can possibly inform Diirgatamas as to who--the one/éka--who formed the universe, and the kaví's in 16c who alone see the gender of the twins mentioned in 15b as R'si's, and who have insight as to the father of the sun in 18c. Then we have R'Si in 15b as the six sets of god-born twins. Then vípra in 46c are the inspired ones who know how to speak of the one real/ékam sát. For Diirgatamas, the kaví seems the most sure repository of knowledge, while the vípra's can properly praise with it regarding the One Real. Again, to proceed further goes well beyond the purpose of this study. It is clear, however, that the terminology for praise-givers undergoes much the same change and development as does the terminology of the self in Vedic and warrants careful study to elucidate the evolving hierarchy of the priesthood which is denoted in these assignations of right knowledge and insight.

149 Occasions of -cit were found in bráhman's immediate semantic field twice-- 2.2.10, 2.34.7, and in the adjacent verse''s 6.17.2-3. For -budh, the occasions were somewhat problematized by the prevalence of bodhi which, as with 3.51.6 where the imperative aorist is as likely a form of -bhuu as of -budh (cf. RV 5.4.9, 2.9.2, and 4.16.17 discussed in note 125 to Chapter 4).

150 Compare Geldner, "So haben dir, du (Trinker des) Falbenanschirrungs (schoppens), mit schöner Lobrede die Gotamiden eine Erbauung bereitet, o Indra. Leg in sie die Dichtung mit allen Zierden! -- Recht bald am Morgen soll sich der einstelln, der durch die Weisheit Schätze erwirbt" (1951, I:80).

151 In RV 6.38.3-4 we have dhiyaá in 3a, bráhmaa in 3c, and mánma with bráhma in 4d. Power and prayer/bráhma ca gíro is concentrated in Indra (3c) thanks to Bhaaradvaaja's best efforts of prayer/dhiyaá paramáyaa in 3a. Then comes the catalogue of prayer words in 4b (see Chapter 4). Most notably the idea of power/bráhman is spoken of as "put together with"/sámdadhiré--i.e. it is otherwise separate from--gíro.

152 It's not impossible that the three voices are indicated in the verse- the right prayer/Rtásya, power of wisdom bráhmaNo maniiSaám, and the inquiries of the cows as they come/pRchámaanaaH. Geldner, in reference to the same formula in 9.33.4a, suggests these are "der priester, das Blöken der kühe, und das Brausen des Soma" (1951, III:30). SaayaNa says it implies the three Vedas: tisro vaac RgyajuH saamaatmikaa, Griffith suggests the three accents, udaatta, anudaatta, and svarita (1987: 392, n. 34). In 9.97.32d, the Soma has rushed forth from the mouths of sages/kaví as hymns/hinvaanó vaácam matíbhiH kaviínam). In 9.97.35b cattle are said to come to the soma sages//vípraa using the TriSTubh meter. It seems that all three interpretations are viable. Geldner's is supported as there is talk of the priests' voices/prayers, and the cattle in 34c making inquiries/pRchámaanaH, and the voice of Soma through the kaví's. The three accents would also be the possessions--aatmika--of the three vedas, and/or their own selves or essences.

153 Geldner does not take the three voices as listed in the verse, "Drei Simmen setzt der Wagenlenker in Bewegung, die erkenntnis des Gesetzes, den Gedanken der heiligen Rede. Die Kühe kommen, sich nach dem Kuhlerrn zu erkundigen, zu erkundigen, zu Soma kommen verlangend die Dichtungen" (1951, III: 99).

154 Geldner is the same, rendering bráhma no more auspiciously than Segen "Das allererste Gedicht is gesungen; sprechet dem Indra den Segen!" (1951, II: 375).

155 Cf. 10.50.7, 10.54.6, and 10.112.8.

156 Geldner again gives "feierliche Rede" as a late RV reading for bráhman: "Götterwärts soll der Weg für die feierliche Rede gehen, hin zu den Gewässern wie auf (eigenen) Antrieb des Geistes" (1951, III: 175).

157 Geldner differs substantially "Dieses rurische Geheimwort wird also der, dessen Worte Beifall Finden, in dem Wettstreit um das Können mit Bedact (vortragen)" (1951, III: 226). Thieme (1952: 105) renders this "In dieser (der folgenden) Weise [schafft] diese von Rudra eingegebene Formulierung [der Dichter], dess Wort gepriesen wird im Wettkampf [der Dichter wegen der Geisteskraft (krátu) in seinem Können (shácyaam antár). He takes shácyaam as shaaktá, following his reading of 7.103.5a-b (yád eSaam anyó anyásya vaácaM shaaktásyeva vádati shíkSamaaNaH).

158 Geldner renders this "Denn mit deiner Hilfe mache ich stets einen Wettlaug um das beschwörende Wort, nach dem Siegerpreis strebend o Falbenfahrer" (1951, II: 376).

159 There is no parallel for this development in the Family Books, however in RV 4.2.14a the poets speak of having done all they can for Agni with their arms, legs, and tanuú (the only possible occasion in the Family Books were tanuú as body is hard to argue against) to gain blessings (ádhaa ha yád vayám agne tvaayaá paDbhíH pashyer hástebhish cakRmaá tanuúbhiH). The worthiness of the humans for the realm of the gods--with VaruNa--is at least open to discussion (utá sváyaa tanvaá sáM vade tát kadaá nvántár váruNe bhevaani).

160 Also Geldner "Die sich selbst den Göttern (zum Opfer) darbrachten, deren Farben alle Soma kennt" (1951, III: 394).

161 In this connection, I refer to Witzel's observation in "How to Enter the Vedic Mind?" where he criticizes the rigidity of Thieme rendering always Wahrheit for Rta (1996: 172). Forcing the reading denies a less informed reader the range of nuances present in a word. While I consider it essential to render tanuú as presence in order to convey both the corporeal and non-corporeal senses of the word, it is important that the non-corporeal sense of reflexivity be conveyed as just what it is "itself/themself." Otherwise my corrective effort obscures the very notion of self--which includes this form of ipse-identity--which I am suggesting it conveys in the RV.

162 In RV Late-a 1.115.5a the sun assumes a form for the sake of VaruNa and Mitra (tán mitrásya váruNasyaabhicákSe suúryo uupáM kRNute dyór upásthe), also 1.71.10, 1.95.8, 1.108.5, 1.114.5, 1.160.2, 1.163.7, 1.164.6, 1.164.44, 1.188.9; also from RV Late-a, in 8.41.5d, heaven brings forth the many forms of VaruNa (ruupáM dyaúr iva puSyati), also 8.15.13. Similarly, in RV Late-b, 8.101.1, again to Suura with varied forms (iyeaM aá niícii arkíNii ruupaá róhiNyaa kRtaá), also 8.102.8. Again in Rv 9 the varied forms of Soma Pavamaana in 9.25.4 (víshvaa ruupaáNy aavishán punaanó yaati haryatáH), as well as 9.16.6, 9.34.4, 9.64.8, 9.65.18, 9.68.6, 9.74.7, 9.85.12, 9.97.57, 9.111.1. Further occurrences are in RV 10.21.3, 10.96.3, 10.110.9, 10.112.3, 10.123.4, 10.124.7, 10.136.4, 10.139.3, 10.164.1, 10.168.4, 10.169.3.

163 Compare Geldner, "Lin leben sich klediend soll er seine Hinterbliebenen aufsuchen; er soll sich mit einem Leib vereinigen, o Jaatavedas!" (1951, III: 148).

164 Geldner takes this similarly: "Nicht soll dich das liebe Leben schmerzen, wenn du eingehst; nicht soll das Beil deinem Körper dauernden Schaden tun" (1951, I: 224).

165 This is true both on the immediate objective level as well as on the level of the subtler implications in the choice of terminology within the semantic fields under study. Geldner notes the relation in this passage of the ashvamedha and the simpler goat offering (1951, 1: 221). The latter is retained in this hymn through the discussion in verses 2-4 of the goat/ajá leading the horse-to the place dear to Indra and PuuSan (see discussion of ajá below in note 46). The hymn is frequently used in the BraahmaNa's for the ashvamedha, as is this verse (VS 25.43, ShB the ShB does not reference VS 25, as the ShB does not utilize the VS from 24-30 following ShB 13; TS This and the many other complex significations of each element in this hymn cannot be thought to have been lost on a riddler such as Diirghatamas. The hymn weaves together elements of both pre-Vedic and Late Vedic significance. The vocabulary throughout the hymn, including both aatmán and tanuú, as well as 4 of only 7 occasions of gaátra/flesh or limb, in the entire RV (a word which is used some 26 times in the KYV, and 57 times in the AVP and AVSh, cf. Chapter 4) reflects the growing complexity of individuality in the later literature at one extreme. It is echoed by vocabulary representing the earliest lore of the Vedic tribes at the other. The invocation of PuuSan is replete with references to an ancient lineage of the Vedic lore of battles past. PuuSan is most frequently praised by the Bharadvaaja of RV 6 (6.53-58). In turn, the Bharadvaaja are, in turn, the family of the purohita of Divodaasa (per PB 15.3.7), who is himself the grandfather of Sudaas, king of the TRtsu's of the Bharatas who were at war with the Turvashas and Yadus (cf. MacDonell and Keith, 1912, II: 97f.; I: 363f.; II: 329f.; &c.). The passage in PB 15.3.7 is retold in JB 3.244 which speaks of the priest Praturdana's son KSatra who assists in the battle by enlisting Indra (cf. 1.162.22d: kSatráM no áshvo vanataaM havíSmaan). This is linked in turn with a similar reference in KaaTS 21.10; KauS.B 26.5, and KauSU 3.1 where Pratardana goes to the "Indra World" from a battle-field death, and linked with Divodaasa. These multiple significations give added dimension to the choice of references and vocabulary in the semantic fields of RV 1.162. As this is a later hymn, it becomes hard to interpret that this was not intentional in a series of riddle hymns about both the origin and the mystic significance of Early Vedic mythology and later sacrificial metaphysics (1.162, 163, 164). Finally, it is also significant for the vocabulary related to the self in this hymnaatmán, gaátra, and tanuú that Divodaasa is referred to as once having been beaten by Indra along with AAyu and Kutsa--see also note 92 re. Kutsa--(RV 1.112.13-14; 1.116.18; 6.16.5; 6.31.4; 6.47.22); and AAyu is also invoked in the opening of the current hymn (maá no mitró váruNo aryamaáyúr).

166 I have taken tapat as torment, per Graßmann "quälen" (1996: 521), similar to Geldner with "schmerzen," suggested by Böthlingk (1879, III: 10).

167 Additionally, as RV 1.162-164 are possibly later insertions (Witzel, 1995b: 311), making thematic comparisons with the other semantic fields in Diirghatamas' hymns is also not possible.

168 E.g. 2.4.3, 2.20.6, 3.5.5, 4.2.8, 4.5.8, 5.19.4, 6.16.42, 7.61.4, 9.2.3, 10.22.3, etc.

169 There are two occasions of the woven web of the cosmos (e.g. tántuM tanuSva in 1.142.1c, and tántum . . . tanvate in 1.159.4c

170 Geldner is similar, "Nicht soll ein gieriger, unerfahrener Zurichter mit dem Hackmesser ausgleitend die zerschnittenen Glieder falsch behandeln" (1951, I: 224).

171 The other three uses are similar, with "limb" not always fitting with exact accuracy, as in 8.17.5 where the Soma is to spread throughout Indra (ánu gaátraa ví dhaavatu), 8.48.9b discussed in the main text, and 9.83.1b where Soma is to permeate all through the filter's parts (prabhúr gaátraaNi páry eSi vishvátaH).

172 Here with kraví as with every single other word for corporeal body its occasions are on the one hand rare, and on the other, limited to the later books and later literature. We find kraví elsewhere in 10.87.16 to refer to smeared flesh of humans, cattle, and horses as an act of defilement the evil-doers, again in 10.16.11--the Funeral Hymn--the flesh becomes and offering fit for Agni to bring to the PitRs, in 10.16.10 Agni is a flesh-eater (kravyavaáhanaH) and again in 10.87.5. The usage then increases substantially in the Mantra Language of the AVP with 20 occasions and 19 in the AVSh.

173 Of several possible words for the physical or corporeal element of individual existence, vápu is much older than the other terms, but is almost completely evaluativestating a quality of appearancerather than denotative of a corporeal entity. It is used widely in the Family Books and RV Late-a while it tapers off thereafter. It is by far most prolific in the earliest parts of the RV, mostly with Agni (3.1.8, 3.18.5, 4.7.9, 1.144.3, 8.19.11, etc.) secondarily with Indra and the Maruts (4.23.9, 5.33.9, 6.66.1, 8.62.9, 8.69.13, 10.32.3, etc.) and a few times with the Ashvins (4.44.2, 1.119.5) and knowledge of the Vishvedevaa's (5.47.5).

174 As suggested in Chapter 4, déha simply is not part of any period of RV vocabulary (see also note 113 above). It occurs only 3 times--once in the latest book, once in a later insertion, and once in a Family Hymn by the VasiSTha's. An active form, dihaanaH is found in 10.87.4b, the late insertion 6.47 (Witzel, 1995b: 311) has dehyaH in verse 2d to refer to the 99 ramparts of Shambara struck down by Indra with Soma's help, and it has a similar structural meaning in 7.6.5a where a young Agni breaks down walls of the foe.

175 With the exception of 1.163.11--likely a later hymn--there is only 1.32.10 in RV Late-b to suggest sháriira as anything other than a late term. In fact, it is found only seven times. Twice it is used in the Funeral Hymn ( 10.16.1, 3) where it is linked with the skin as something not to be scattered and later as something to find its home in the waters with plants. It is found in 10.99.8 referring to the physical approach of the hawk to Soma. The mystic powers of the Keshins is capable of transcending it in 10.136.3. Sháriira remains scarce in the KYV with the MS containing it 3 times, the KS 7, and the TS 9. The AVP, slightly older than these three, has 25 occasions, and the AVSh has it 20 times. This suggests that the sháriira represents not only a slightly later period, but also an altogether different microcosmic worldview insofar as the AV differs from the RV and KYV.

176 This is a slow change however, as the occasions in the Khila's suggest the same patterns as noted above (1.6.6b--spreading the sacrifice, 1.7.3a, 1.8.1b, 3.11.2a, 3.12.1, 5.6.6a).

177 Compare Geldner: "O Seelenführerin! Erhalte den Geist in uns, verlängere doch ja unsere Zeit zum Leben! Laß uns des Anblicks der Sonne Froh werden! Stärke du deinen Leib mit Schmelzbutter (5)! O Seelenführerin! Gib uns das Augenlicht zurück, den Lebenshauch zurück und den Genuß hienieden. Noch lange mochten wir die Sonne auffgehen sehen. O Anumati, sei uns gnädig zum Heil (6)! Die Erde soll uns den Lebensgeist wiedergeben, die Göttin Himmel, die Luft wieder (geben)! Soma soll uns den Leib wiedergeben, PuuSan wieder den Weg, der das heil ist (7)" (1951, III: 223).

178 Both praaNá and ásu are altogether infrequent. There are 7 occasions of praaNá, of which 1 is found in the Family Books in the late hymn 3.53.21. Equally scarce is ásu with 10 occasions, only one --2.22.4d-- is in the Family Books. Somewhat more common is jiivá, with 28 occasions in the later portions of the RV--none in the Vaalakhilya--and only 5 occasions in the Family Books. To this is added the common form jiiváse, the state of living or being animate with 6 occasions in the older books, and various forms totalling 30 in the later RV. For aayú the usage is quite prolific, with 15 occasions in the Family Books (three of these-- 3.53.7, 6.52.15, and 7.103.10-- are in later insertions) and 51 occasions scattered evenly throughout the five strata of the later portions of the RV.

179 For aatmán there is the shared occasion of such hymns as 1.164.4 with aatmán and ásu in the same line, 1.182.3c has ásu and aatmán is in 5; 10.121.3 has praaNá and 121.2 has aatmán; and with aayú there is 1.34.11 with aayú and 34.7 with aatmán. For tmán there is 10.170.1 where both aayú and tmán are in the same verse. For jiivá, we find aatmán in the same line at 10.97.11, and púruSa in the same line at 10.97.17.

180 See note 205 below, and the following discussion of aatmán.

181 For aayú there are three general ways in which its meaning as "lifetime" are employed. By far the most predominant is the request for its span to be lengthened as in RV 3.7.1; 3.53.7; 4.12.6; 6.16.27; 6.52.15; 7.77.5; 7.103.10; 1.53.11; 1.66.1; 1.73.5; 1.89.2, .8; 1.94.16; 1.113.16, 17; 1.116.10, 25; 1.125.1, 6; 1.157.4; 8.18.18, 22; 8.48.10, 11; 1.10.11; 1.34.11; 1.37.15; 1.44.6; 8.79.6; 9.80.2; 9.93.5; 9.96.14; 10.14.14; 10.18.6; 10.59.5; 10.62.11; 10.95.110; 10.107.2; 10.144.5. The next use is to refer to simply the duration of life as in RV 2.38.5; 3.1.5; 6.16.27; 7.23.2; 7.80.2; 7.90.6; 7.104.15; 1.92.10; 1.93.3; 1.96.8; 1.116.19; 1.127.5; 1.132.5; 8.31.8; 8.44.30; 8.48.4; 8.54.7; 8.59.7; 10.16.5; 10.51.7; 10.161.5. Finally it is also vulnerable or subject to loss of length as in 1.24.11, 1.89.9; 3.49.2; 10.170.1.

182 Cf. RV Khila 1.6.7, 2.11.2a, 2.11.5b, 3.6.7a, 4.5.4, 4.6.1b, 5.4.11, 5.7.5aH.

183 See also RV 1.92.9; 1.149.2; 8.8.23; 8.67.5; 10.18.3-4; 10.30.14; 10.36.8-9; 10.37.7; 10.169.1; etc. Also with jiivaátu it is similar to aayú as something of with to wish for longer duration in 1.94.4, 10.59.5 as here, etc.

184 See also RV 1.80.4; 1.113.6 (discussed below); 10.19.6; 10.57.5. Also there are the cases with jiiváse where the deities are implored to permit life as in 1.25.21; 1.91.7; 8.18.22; 10.25.4, 6; and those where jiivaátu has this meaning as in 10.186.2.

185 In 1.67.5a we also have ajá which, while not properly a word for life, must be considered. It is not associated with a notion of self in the occasions where it is found in the RV. In RV 1.67 Agni is the unborn who upholds the world (ajó ná kSaáM daadhaára pRthiviíM). Ajá is also part of a question in 1.164.6d as to who the "one"/ékam who fixed firm the worlds regions in the image/ruupé of the unborn (ví yás tastámbha SáL imaá rájaaMsy ajásya ruupé kím ápi svid ékam). A similar use of ajá as the one/éka whose navel is the residing point for all things existing (ajásya naábhaav ádhy ékam árpitaM yásmin víshvaani bhúvanaani tasthúH). In 1.162.2, however, it seems clear that ajá refers to the goat--cf. note 165 above. The sacrifice of the goat served as model around which the horse sacrifice developed. Muir suggests Unborn also, that he is the son of Brahmaa (1872, IV: 378, cf. 383) of course this just postpones the question as the next logical query is who then is Brahmaa? However, this is a development which is much later, in connection with the Mahaabhaarata (4.1.47, 48), which is substantially outside the period with which the current study is concerned. Muir notes that the other attestation of ajá, the god Aja Ekapaad, is "merely mentioned in detached verses" (1872, V: 336). Böthlingk associates him with the storms, "ein Genius des Sturmes" (1879, I: 15). In TB 13.1.6 Aja Ekapaad establishes heaven and earth by his force. Ajá is frequently mentioned in Middle Vedic literature (TS,, ShB, JB 2.371, MS 2.5.1, KS 13.1). PúruSa is also found in each of these--KS 13.1; MS 2.5.1 (with an attestation of khálu!), with a similar formula púruSaaNaaM ruupáM yat tuurás. Prithvi K. Agrawala has suggested that Vedic ajá and the Indus Valley civilization bear distinct similarities ("Vedic aja in the Indus Valley," Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 39: 1977, pp.1-7). As far as Vedic literature goes, not much additional light is shed, however, as he notes it is the Unborn, but--particularly considering the use in Middle Vedic--it is specifically a designation of Prajaapati (1977: 1). He doesn't accept that it always means goat when referring to an animal however, but instead that it is a mysterious creature sacred to Prajaapati in the later texts (1977: 2ff.).

186 Cf. RV Khila 1.1.3, 1.5.6, 2.8.1, 2.11.2, 3.17b, 4.7.2, and 4.9.5b.

187 Paul Horsch ("Vorstufen der indischen Seelenwanderungslehre" Asiatische Studien 25, p. 113) wants to see the mánas as one half of a bipartite primitive soul notion with ásu as the vital aspect and mánas as the spiritual sense. As I have argued in the opening chapter, this reads the discoveries from the later literature back upon the RV. In the RV Family Books, the term was quite uncommon (see Chapter 4). In the later portions, it is simply the term for the mental component of an individual and, perhaps, the special mental work association with prayer (though we see -dhii used more frequently to refer to this action). Even the so-called "spirit hymn" (Maurer, 1986: 264f.) in 10.58 does not in any way suggest a dispersion of the mánas as anything more subtle or abstract than the collected knowledge of each of the various realms listed--pRthiviím, cáturbhRSTim, pradísho, etc. There are uses of -man in various forms throughout the later RV--and several with mánas--but infrequently with the key words under study. These will be discussed in more detail below with ahám, aatmán, tmán, and púruSa. In short, however, mánas is not part of an architecture of a multi-faceted soul--as sought by Horsch, and oddly argued by Oldenberg as unified with ásu after death.

188 It is without any substantial ambiguity that praaNá signifies breath. For example, RV 10.189.2 even counterposes in- and out-breathing (antásh carati rocanaá 'syá praaNaád apaanatií ). It is essential to a lifetime in 1.66.1 (aáyur ná praaNó nítyo ná suunúH). It is the pragmatic marker of life in the "lord of all that moves/-jag and breaths" statements in 1.101.5 and 10.121.3 (yó víshvasya jágataH praaNatás pátir and yáH praaNató nimiSató mahitvaíka íd raájaa jágato babhúva). It is associated with the wind in the creation cycle of 10.90.13 (praaNaád vaayúr ajaayata).

189 It had only a sporadic use in the Family Books, as in 7.10.2, which was limited to the weaving of the sacrifice (yajñáM tanvaaná ushíjo ná mánma), or weaving garments in 5.47.6a-b (víi tanvate dhíyo asmaa ápaaMsi vástra purtaáya maatáro vayanti).

190 Also 1.159.4c, 9.43.20b, 9.66.5a, 9.86.32b, 9.107.7c, 10.106.1b.

191 In RV Late-a: 1.72.3d, 1.84.17d (in need of wealth), 1.89.9b, 1.114.7d (vulnerable to Rudra), 1.189.6b; in RV Late-b: 1.23.21b, 1.33.12b, 8.68.12, 8.71.13d, 8.79.3a, 8.86.1c, 8.91.6b; in RV 9: 9.65.30b (in need of wealth), 9.66.18b (needing children); and RV 10: 10.59.7c, 10.69.4c (with tanuúpaa), 10.83.5d, 10.88.8c (with tanuúpaa ), 10.97.10d, 10.98.10c, 10.100.10c, 10.108.6b (the wicked tanuú of the PaNi's), 10.128.1b, 5c (liable to loss of children), 10.154.3b, 10.157.3b, 10.158.4b, 10.183.2b.

192 The TS quotes this same mantra in, and we also find RV 8.31.3 in ShB There is one other case in the KaaNviiya ShB both of which quote the same mantra from RV 8.31. Keith (1914: 39, n. 12) suggests it should be read as tanuukR'debhyaH, thus saying it means "brought about by ourselves." I can accept the reflexive sense, but there is nothing in the other editions to support ebhyaH.

193 AV Sh 8.5.9 refers also to the self-made nature of the Asura's witchcraft (kRtyaáH svayáMkRtaa yaá u caanyébhir aábhRtaaH). However, cf. ShB where the yájamaana takes refuge in a self-made cleft in the Raajasuuya, similar, see However, as noted in ShB, the cleft is used to take refuse against what is evilperhaps taking refuge in what is self-made protects one from the self-made evil of Asura's and the like (also JB 1.134).

194 By contrast, aatmakR't is found only twice. Once in VSM 8.13 referring to atonement, and in TAA 59 (to which I do not have access). Forms of tmán with kR't are not attested.

195 We see this in the Family Books only twice, and it is a strictly Vishvamitra term for Agni in RV 3.4.2, and 3.29.11, where it is listed as one of several names by which Agni can be called. RV 3.29 is a later hymn (Witzel 1995b: 311), however, and this combined with its infrequency in the Family books as compared to the later RV lead me to include mention of it here. It is an instance of the changing identity of Agni as deity of the Asura's before being "converted" to the Aryan divinity roll (a possible reading of RV 10.124, cf. Parpola) in the Early RV as here in 3.29.9a the term is applied to Agni as the germ of the cosmos (tánuunápaad ucyate gearbha aasuro). As a later insertion it could just mean germ of the divine as wellor it could be an allusion to the "conversion."

196 Also RV 1.142.2b, 8.11.1c, 9.5.2a, 10.92.2d, 10.110.2a.

197 Though tánuunápaat's prominence with the AApriis suggests a quite early origin of the word (Gonda, 1975: 104) which was later turned to the sacrificial associations, as here, with Agni in connection with morning and evening prayer/agnihotra in which the deities of dawn and dusk would figure heavily. Later the AApriis figure most heavily with the Prayaaja, the preparations for the animal sacrifice.

198 Also with Agni, RV 8.11.10c, 8.100.1a, 10.7.6-7, 10.16.4c (the Funeral Hymn), 10.28.12b with Vasukra, 10.51.2.

199 Other presences/tanuús are called forth such as beauty--as is common with the Marut in RV 1.88.3a, 8.20.6c, 1.165.5b; or the beauty of other deities and laudable entities like the Dawn in RV 1.123.10a, 1.124.6c, 1.134.4b; the Ashvins in 1.181.4b; Indra is bedecked in 1.96.10d; Agni's beauty in 1.140.11c; or knowledge/Jñaanam in 10.71.4c; the DakSiNaa in 10.107.6c; and Indra's strength 8.1.18c; 9.73.2d, 10.116.6d.

200 Compare Geldner "Wenn ich wirklich die mit ihrem Leibe sich breitmachenden Gottlosen zum Kampfe sellen werde . . ." (1951, III: 165).

201 Geldner does not embellish tanvaá shuúshujaanaan the same way, leaving the tone of admonition out of his rendering: "In die Halle geht der Spieler sich erkundigend und sich breit machend (in der Hoffnung): `Ich werde siegen'" (1951, III: 184).

202 1.30.14a, 1.54.4b, 1.63.8d, 1.104.3b, 1.178.3d, 8.3.21c, 8.6.8a, 10.22.5b, 10.133.5d, and 10.148.1d.

203 See also RV 8.49.4d, 8.103.3c, 9.86.1b, 9.88.3c, 10.133.5d, 10.142.2d.

204 As has been consistently the case in this study, every anomaly leads to an interesting trail to be followed in subsequent scholarship. Shaaryaata Maanava is mentioned twice, in Saavya A^Ngirasa's 1.51.12 and 3.51.7 where Shaaryaata is noted as a special presenter of Soma to Indra which is especially delightful to him. Additionally, AB 4.32.7 continues the legend of Shaaryaata's virtuousity with his correct explanation of the Nivid hymn for the second day offerings, incorporating one of the few occasions of tanuú in the BraahmaNa'ssaying that the tanuú had to be rightly explained before the celestial world/svarga lokam can be known and attained. The connection extends to Cyavana as well, who is a dead, ghostlike man pelted with stones by Shaaryaata's children, bringing him bad fortune, in ShB This is also told of in JB 3.121.

205 Cf. also 7.60.2c, where Suurya is the guard or herdsman/gopaá of all that moves and stands (víshvasya sthaathúr jágataashca gopaá) indicating that the role of the aatmán as it replaces gopaá in this same semantic field--as also in 7.101.6b and 1.115.1d --is indicative of something more than simply breath. Instead, aatmán indicates something which is a trait of breath. Breath marks or leads the existence of life--cf. discussion of praaNá above--and so this is the attribute emphasized in the passage for aatmán. Breath alone does not have dominion over what moves as indicated in 10.121.3a where praaNá denotes one of the entities, along with what moves, which is presided over.

206 Muir is similar, "Ye, Ashvins, bore him in animated, water-tight ships which traversed the air" (1967, V: 244); also Geldner "Ihn entführtet ihr auf beseelten, durch die Luft schwimminden [fliegenden], wasserdichten Schiffen" (1951, I: 153).

207 Only here and in 1.182.5-7 is the myth "intact" in this form with the animated ship/aatmanvátiibhir or aatmanvántam as the device of rescue, with horses mentioned later in 1.116.4 but not in 1.182. Elsewhere, in 1.117.14-15 it is swift-winged horses that carry Bhujyu from disaster (víbhir uuhathur Rjrébhir áshvaiH), also in 1.158.3, 7.68.7, 7.69.7, 8.3.23, 10.143.5. In 6.62.6 it is winged birds that save Bhujyu. The disaster is referred to as a flood in 1.119.4 and 8; an abandonment in 7.69.7, and an abandonment by the wicked in 7.68.7. Elsewhere the myth is generally referenced--in typical Vedic Style (cf. Gonda, 1975; et al)--with little or no narrative in 1.118.6, 1.158.3, 1.180.5, 8.5.22, 10.39.4, and 10.40.7. There is hardly a rush of scholars concerned with the matter either. Outside of MacDonell and Keith (1912, I: 313; II: 106), there is no evidence of a rush among scholars to address either Bhujyu or Tugra directly (Dandekar, 1986, 1978, 1975, 1985, 1993).

208 The multiple significations of the turiíyam is repeatedly mentioned as in 8.52.7c where Indra is the fourth of VaruNa, Mitra, and Aryaman, or 1.164.45 where speech is divided into four parts, 10.90.3-4 where the cosmic púruSa is divided into 4 parts. By analogy--the tanuú as clothing, aatmán as food, and oil as strength--the poet is noting the auspicious or elevated essential elements of life among which Paakasthaaman has made himself the fourth through his "Bhujyu-rescue-worthy" horse gift.

209 Compare Geldner " . . . vom ganzen Körper zieh ich dir jetzt ab" (1951, III: 390).

210 There are other terms such as mánu and púMs to refer to humanspúMs, most of the occasions are in the later RV. In each case, however, the context of the hymn is one pertaining to a contrast of correct and incorrect offerings. With the exception of the two Diirghatamas occasions, púMs applies to occasions wherein wrong giving is disdained (as in 5.61.6b where the púMs who does not offer is worse off than a female: utá tvaa strií sháshiiyasii puMsó bhavati vásyasii). The setting for the Diirghatamas occasions is one of offering, but not so of contrast with poor offering as in 1.124.7a, 7.6.1b, 10.32.3d. In addition, excepting 7.6.1b, all these are later hymns (Witzel, 1995b: 311). It is hard to reconcile both the use and the infrequency of púMs with the more common form paúMshya. If the vRddhi form is considered posterior to the relatively infrequent base in púMs, then why would the great acts of Indra be described with a derivative of a word which implies a human who does not necessarily sacrifice correctly?

A good explanation might begin with Elizarenkova's suggestion that this word is borrowed from another language--and hence, another people who in all likelyhood did not sacrifice correctly. This common form, paúMsya continues in the same form as the Family Books, signifying mighty acts, presumably from -puMs to crush. It is also still predominantly used of Indra, but with some variations to generally imply a mighty deed, cf. 1.5.9, 1.80.10, 1.101.3, 8.3.20, 8.63.3, 9.99.1, 10.59.3, 10.93.13, etc. It is almost impossible to reconcile two such widely divergent meanings. If we were to consider 5.61.6 regarding how a non-sacrificing male/púMs is worse off than a female, then the only meaning which could account for the predominant use of paúMsya would be "male." thus all Indra's deeds would be "masculine" and "virile." This still does not account for the ambiguity surrounding the sacrificial dutifulness of the púMs, however. The question would warrant a fruitful study considering that one occasion of púMs is found in the hymn wherein Agni is an Asura, praised in battle ( 7.6.1). Taken together with the lateness of most of the hymns containing púMs, they can shed light on the changing social groups of the early Vedic period. Otherwise, the terminology for human beings is relatively uncomplicated. The derivative of -man, mánu is by far the term of choice for identifying humans, it outnumbers both púMs and púruSa by more than 10:1 each. It is also used consistently throughout all portions of the RV.

211 Geldner is similar "Gebt mir die Voropfer und die Nachopfer ausschließlich zu eigen, den nahrhaften Teil des Opfers, und das Schmalz der Wasser under den Mann der Pflanzen, und langes Leben soll dem Agni weden, ihr Götter!" (1951, III: 213).

212 However, aapás is not foreign to association with Agni. Water is elsewhere a point of origin for Agni as in 10.45.1 describes three sources from which Agni is born--heaven, the waters, and among the people (divás pári prathamám jagñe agnír asmád dvitiíyam pári jaatávedaaH tRtuyiiyam apsú nRmánaa ájasram).

213 In this connection it is worth noting that 10.51.1d, 2b, and 4c all use tanuú to refer to the varied aspects of Agni distributed throughout the waters and plants. If the tanuú is contrasted with an abstraction of individuality here with púruSa as it is elsewhere with aatmán, that could account for this singular use of púruSa with óSadhi.

214 Agni is also the life/aayú of the waters in 3.1.5e (shocír vásaanaH páry aáyr apaáM).

215 This hymn also contains púruSa-, in 7.4.3c where Agni is glowing insufferably such that humans cannot seize him, offers protection: ní yó gR'bham paúruSeyiim uvóca durókam agnír aayáve shushoca.

216 Muir, 1872, I: 6-10; II: 454 ff.; III: 61; IV: 367ff.; V: 200, 201, 213, 218; also Gonda, 1975: 137f.; Brown, 1931: 108ff.; Maurer, 1986: 271f; etc.

217 RV Kh. 1.4.6b, 2.6.2b, 2.6.15b, 2.9.1a, 4.5.4b, 4.6.3b, 4.7.2a, 5.7.2ai-b, 5.11.2a, 5.12.3a.

218 Occasions of Viraaj in the RV are too few to permit much analysis of this point. Perhaps more can be gleaned from Sahota's work (cf. Chapter 1) once it is translated. Viraaj is found 6 times in the RV. Maurer calls it a "female principle" whose identity--and even existence--is dependent upon púruSa for their mutual union and subsequent creation of the world (1986: 274). It often seems to mean a ruler or sovereign ( 10.166.1d), or for the particular meter (10.130.5, 10.159.3d), and likened to Soma as a steed striving to heaven (9.96.18). In 1.188.5 it seems possibly to refer quite intimately to a female with open womb for the sacrifice (viraáT samraáD vibhviíH prabhiír bahviísh ca bhuúyasiish ca yáH). It is much more common later, used over 30 times each in the MS, KS, and TS; as well as over 60 times in the AVSh and the AVP.

219 There are only a handful of occasions with tmán which I list here. They do not share semantic fields with the other primary terms and are quite isolated. The use of tmán to indicate the identification of a characteristic with a particular deity remains consistent. The term is found only 5 times in both the AVSh and the AVP (AVSh 5.27.11; 7.50.1, 20.16.7; 20.122.2; and 5.12.10; and in the AVP, 3.37.1; 10.10.8; 10.51.3; 5.21.7; and 5.18.2). Thus in AVSh (also AVP 20) the thunderbolt always strikes the tree irresistibly in and of itself (raakaamaháM suhávaa suSTutií huve shRNétu naH subhagaa bódhatu tmánaa). Notably, SaayaNa glosses tmán with aatmán in his commentary. The AVP even excludes tmán as it is found in AVSh 5.27.11 wherein Agni of himself is the sweetener of the oblation for the gods (cf. Whitney, 1905: 271): tmánaa devébhyo ágnir havyáM shamitaá svadayatu. In the BYV it is also scarce, MS includes 1.2.15; 2.7.3, 2.7.13; 2.12.6; 2.13.8, 2.13.11; 3.9.6; 3.9.7; 3.11.1; 3.16.2; 4.10.4; 4.11.1, 4.12.23; 4.13.3; 4.14.15. The KS has 2.9; 3.6; 6.11; 7.16; 10.12; 13.16; 15.12; 16.3; 18.17; 19.4; 38.6; 39.15; 46.2. The TS includes the smallest number, consistent with its place as a later text and the decrease in use of tmán:;;;;;;;;;; Again, the use of tmán, while infrequent, is unchanged from the earlier period. Thus tmán identifies that nature of Agni which burns or cuts against the demons/rakSásas like jaws in TS (kSopó raajannuta tmánaa'>| sá tigmajambha rakSáso deha práti ).

220 For the VS, AB, JB, ShB, TAA, AAA, and various UpaniSads I am working from my notes compiled in the years prior to my work with the electronic RV.

221 In Padoux's study of Vaac he does not show occasions of bráhman and Vaac being connected in the early literature of the Middle Vedic period he does not refer to this period as such, though, by name this key relation is a development subsequent to the early texts of the Middle Vedic period (1990: pp. 5ff.). The earliest attestations, apart from the later hymn 10.114 where the two are directly equivalent, are a few verses of the AVSh and one from TB which places Vaak as firstborn, mother of the Veda, and navel of immortality, but not related yet to bráhman: vaag áksharaM pratham ájaa ÿR'tasya | vedánaáM maátaa'mRtasyá naabhiH).

222 Wherever possible I have sought to rectify the paucity of editions for the Atharva Veda Paippalaada, I have tried to choose those hymns which, according to Whitney (1905) are also found therein.

223 Whitney says c has "a redundant syllable" (1905: 381), however the padapaaTha in the Hoshiarpur edition has shrámeNa anáyaa--perhaps adding anáyaa from -an/to breath, respire--thus binding him with respiration as well. Similarly, bráhman is assigned the duty of being a defense/paridhÿiír of the living in AVSh 8.2.25c-d/AVP 16 (yatredáM brahma kriyáte paridhiír jiivanaaya kám). It is also a patch applied by the priest for what is damaged in AVSh 12.3.22c-d/AVP 17 (yád yad dyuttáM likhitám arpaNena tena maá susror bráhmaNaápi tád vapaami). In private electronic correspondence, Witzel (April 5, 1998) has suggested that anáyaa refers to the girdle, not to breath.

224 I am greatly indebted to the following individuals for their assistance on this passage via personal e-mail correspondence: Makoto Fushimi (, John Smith (jds10, Arlo Griffiths (, and George Cardona (cardona@, from 3/2/98-3/4/98. In addition, I have followed the accent as suggested by Dumont, Dumont, Proc. of the Amer. Philos. Soc., 113(1969), text p.60, tr. p.62. I have followed the translation suggested by Cardona.

225 I can take credit for little more than having unearthed the vocabulary and, perhaps, one-fifth of the syntax for this passage. The remainder of the extrapolated meaning has come by means of personal communcation with Frederick M. Smith (March 22, 1998). In this and the other MS/KS passages, he has also assisted in clarifying the ritual context for the passages. Michael Witzel (via e-mail, April 5, 1998) has also provided additional clarification as to the bráhman- Soma-aatmán relationship in this passage as well as specific clarifications for the remaining MS/KS sections.

226 In addition, we have the occasions where BRhaspati is equated with the brahmán as in MS 3.6.8, also in KS 10.1 with Sarasvatii equated to Vaac: baarhaspatyaM carum abhicaranvaabhicaryamaaNo vaagnirvai sarvaa devataa viSNuryaj–o vaak sarasvatii brahma bRhaspatir agninaivaasya devaabhirdevataaH praticarati viSNunaa yaj–ena yaj–aM sarasvatyaa vaacaa vaacaM bRhaspatinaa brahmaNaa brahma samameva kRtva yat kiMca tataH karoti. Equivalences of the priest with various cosmic roles abound, all with the purpose of coalescing the various key elements in the construction of the ritual cosmos. The sociological factor is also attested in the cementing of complementary roles for the priest/brahmán and the warrior/king, the kshátra as in MS 4.5.8 where they are respectively associated with the pair Mitra-VaruNa in the placement of purification (brahmá vai mítraH, kSátraM varuNó, brahmaNi cá vaa état kSátre cá payo dadhaáti). It is still the priesthood, of course, with the ascendancy as five gods are named as the divine priests a little further on in this passage (pa–cá vai braahmáNasya dávataa, ágniH somaH savítaa bRhaspatíH sarasvatií). The skillful control of Vaac is integral to this ascendancy of the priest who, by means of a series of equivalences, is entrusted with the entire sacrificial cosmos in MS 3.6.8: ágnir vaí sarvaa devataá, viSNur yáj–o, dévataash caíva yáj–aM caalabdhá saarasvatiim ánuucya vaagyantˆvyaá, vaag vaí sarasvatii vaácaa yáj–aH saMtato, vaácaiva yáj–aM saMtanoti, baarhaspátyaam ánuucyaá vaagyantàvyaá brahmá vai bRhaspatír brahmaNaa yáj–aH saMhitó brahmaNaíva yáj–aM saMdadhaati "All the gods are Agni, ViSNu is sacrifice, and the gods alone have obtained the sacrifice, Sarasvatii is repeated with restrained voice, Vaac indeed is Sarasvatii, the sacrifice is spread forth by Vaac, by Vaac alone this sacrifice spreads forth, BRhaspati is repeated with restrained voice, the Brahmán indeed is BRhaspati, by the Brahmán the sacrifice is put together, by the Brahmán alone the sacrifice connected." Cf. also AB 1.19.

227 Here and below I thank Michael Witzel for his clarifications on the MS and KS passages, via private electornic communication (April 7, 1998).

228 One of the first things which stands out in the passage is the two renderings of tanuú: tanuúr and tanúvam. Witzel has discussed this feature, found also with svàr/súvar, wherein the longer syllabic count is replaced over time with the shorter, and he notes "It is here that we must take into account the redaction of all Vedic texts which laid a deceptive phonetic veil over the texts, making them appear more uniform than they were" (1989: 177). The case with tanúvam is peculiar to the Taittiriiya school, and is attested in no other SaMhitaas with tanuú (Vishva Bandhu, 1959, Section I, Part III: 1485-1486). Witzel notes that the reason for this is unclear, and suggests that the "whims, 'tics', and mannerisms" of the teachers proves as "unpredictable as the development of the spelling/pronunciation of an English word" (1989: 178). As much as the scope of the present study allows, I've checked numerous TS passages where both forms are found (e.g.,;;; etc.), and I must concur, acknowledging the usage as idiosyncratic. In the present passage, TS (not found in the MS or KS), I thought that--perhaps--tanúvam might be applied to Indra as an older god and tanuú would apply to the "newer" notion of the composite self which includes tanuú. This did not hold insofar as I was able to research the matter. However, there is another case here for a companion volume to this study wherein the matter is examined in greater detail with closer scrutiny of the actual syntax of the ritual in each case. For instance, TS (see below) concludes--after a long string of relations including aatmán, púruSa, and sháriira--with the attestation of Vaishvaanara as the presence/tanuúr dear to Agni and thus this is the presence/tanúvam dear to the sacrificer (ágneH príyaa tanuur yád vaishvaanáraH príyaam evaásya tanuvam áva rundhe). Again, if tanuú is the "newer" form, it stands to reason that it would be associated with the sacrificer while the tanuú of old,tanúvam, of the deity would associate with Vaishvaanara. At this stage of the study, however, I cannot delve deeper into the mythology at play to establish a firm pattern by which either form represents older or newer ideas and associations.

229 Keith suggests "Be united your dear bodies, Be united your dear hearts, Be your breath united, united my body" (cf. KS 17.12, 1914: 312).

230 I will present them according to the order in the TS as it was not practical to look each term up unless it related to the category under examination here, I used Keith (1914). The self words come first--aatmán, aayú, tanuú, krátu, sháriira, etc.--which forms the first group in each BYV text (TS, MS 2.11.2, and KS 18.7--quoted in full below). The second group would be the ethics-power group--jyaíSˆhayaM, mahimaá, satyáM, shruddhaá, sukRtaM, etc.--found in TS 4.7.2, KS 18.7-8, MS 2.11.2-3. Third are the life-prosperity words--kaáma, priyáM, jiivaátu, bhágas, etc.--distributed in TS 4.7.3, MS 2.11.3-4, KS 18.8-9. The category also includes RtáM which would also be a key element of prosperity. Fourth are the words related to practical or material gains--ghRtáM, ánnaM, raáyas, bahuú, bhuúyas, etc.--in TS 4.7.4, MS 2.11.4, KS 18.9. Fifth are the words related to strength and the components of the terrestrial world--aaraNyaás, áshmaa, párvataas, shákti, kárma, etc.--in TS 4.7.5, MS 2.11. 5, KS 18.10. Sixth are the names of the major deities- ágni (first as in RV hymn arrangement!), sóma, índra (unlike the other deities, Indra is repeated several times), savitaá, sárasvatii, etc.--in TS 4.7.6, MS 2.11.5, KS 18.10. Seventh are the lesser deities or those whose similarity is found in a lesser number of RV hymns addressed to them- aMshú, rashmí, vaíshvadevás, etc.--in TS 4.7.7, MS 2.11.5, KS 18.11. Eighth are the implements and priests of sacrifice--barhís, védi, camasaás, aágniidhraM, etc.--in TS 4.7.8, MS 2.11.5, KS 18.11. Ninth are additional sacrificial components, this time with an emphasis upon the recitations--praaNá (found in several categories), dyaús, yaj–éna, R'k, saáma, stóma, etc.--in TS 4.7.9, MS 2.11.5, KS 18.11. There is some discrepancy in the last section for each text. The tenth group is best categorized as words relating to offspring and progeny mostly of kine--vatsaá, RSabhásh, vashaá--in 4.7.10, MS 2.11.6, KS 18.12. From this point there is a blurring between the texts, though all three include a catalogue of auspicious numerals in their last sections (TS 4.7.11, 2.11.6, KS 18.12).

231 Personal communication from Frederick M. Smith, comments on dissertation draft, (March 25, 1998).

232 KS 18.12: RSabhásh ca vehác ca ma ékaa ca me tisrásh ca me tisrásh ca me tráyastriMshacca me cátasrash ca me 'Sˆaú ca me'Sˆaú ca me 'SˆaácatvaariMshacca me || vaájash ca prasavásh caapijásh ca krátush ca vaakpatísh ca vámush ca svarmaurdhnaá muurdhaá vaiyashanó vyashvaáM aantyó'ntyo bhauvanó bhúvanasy pátiH prajaápatir iyáM te raáNmitró yantaási yámana uurjé tvaa vRSˆyaí tvaa prajaánaaM tvaádhipatyaayaáyuryaj–éna kalpataaM máno yaj–éna kalpataaM praaNó yaj–éna kalpataaM cákSur yaj–éna kalpataaM shrótraM yaj–éna kalpataaM vaág yaj–éna kalpataam aatmaá yaj–éna kalpataaM brahmaá yaj–éna kalpataaM pRSˆáM yaj–éna kalpataaM yaj–ó yaj–ó kalpataam R'k ca saáma ca stómash ca yájush ca bRhác ca rathantaráM ca svardevaá aganma prajaápateH prajaá abhuuvann amR'taa abhuuma véˆ svaáhaa "(May this sacrifice be for me) a bull, a pregnant cow, one, three, thirty-three, 4, 8, 8, 48 || May it be for me vigor, impulse, born again, intention, father of speech, expectorant, light rising upward, head, ~~success (?), deprived of horses (?), elders of elders, offspring of offspring, fathers, Prajaapati, here for/of me precepts of Mitra, sustain government, strength, rain to me, offspring, the top of the head/the top ruler, a prosperous length of life by sacrifice, by sacrifice benefit the mind, by sacrifice may breath benefit, by sacrifice may the eye benefit, by sacrifice may the ear benefit, by sacrifice may the voice benefit, by sacrifice may the active essence benefit, by sacrifice may the priest benefit, by sacrifice the back/top benefit, by sacrifice may the sacrifice benefit, may R'k, saáman, stóma, and yájush benefit by sacrifice, by sacrifice may abundance benefit, by sacrifice may chariot skills benefit, may the light of the gods, departure, Prajaapati, progeny, what has been, immortality, and the word of offering/svaáhaa."

233 As noted, svá implies ownership and is effectively a genetive pronoun.

234 bhaaginamevainaM kRtvaa saMvatsaram anuutsaadayat agnaye vaisvaanaraaya dvaadashakapaalaM nirvapedyaH puruSaM pratigRhNiiyaadaaptaaM vaa eSa aatmanaa dakSiiNaaM pratigRhNaati yaH puruSaM pratigRhNaaty aaptaaM dakSiNaaM pratigRhiitaaM hinasti saMvatsaro vaa agnirvaishvaanaras saMvatsaras svaditasya svadayitaa tameva bhaagadheyenopadhaavati so 'smai tat sarvaM svadayati. I translate this roughly as: "Possessing a share only this is made the year (anu - ut- -sad) causing to replace the 11 respective offering plates of Agni Vaishvaanara, offered to puruSa, they are appropriated. Gained/aptam, indeed, is this by the vital essence (southern essence) the fee, appropriated is what the púruSa appropriately gains, the fee is gained, because it is the year, indeed Agni vaishvaanara is the year's sweetening/svaditasya, svadayitaa/sweetness is only this, by the portion/share this/he approaches/has recourse, he/that for this makes all this sweet." Remember also that Yaaska has suggested -ap/to reach/obtain as a root of aatmán, so there could be some intended phonetic play at work here.